Growth performance, carcass composition, hematological and biochemical indices of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss juveniles fed diet containing different levels of vitamin premix



An 8-week feeding trial was conducted using a flow-through system to determine the effect of different levels of dietary vitamin premix on growth, carcass, hematological and biochemical indices of juvenile rainbow trout. Practical diets with six levels (0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00 and 1.25%) of dietary vitamin premix were fed to rainbow trout juveniles (mean initial weight 26.3±2.9g) at 3 replicates. Growth indices containing final weight, weight gain, body weight increase, feed conversion ratio, specific growth rate, condition factor and hepatosomatic index were not affected by dietary treatments. No mortality or deficiency signs were observed during the experiment. There was no significant difference in carcass proximate compositions. Hematological indices, including hematocrit, hemoglobin and the number of red blood cells were affected by dietary treatments, but the number of white blood cells was not affected. Biochemical indices containing cholesterol, total protein, and peroxidase did not differ significantly in fish fed the different diets, but significant difference was observed in triglyceride and alkaline phosphatase levels. Stress indices including cortisol, glucose and lactate levels showed significant difference among the treatments. Regarding to the obtained results, both non-supplementation and excess supplementation of vitamin premix in the diet have some negative effects on rainbow trout. Thus, the appropriate level of vitamin premix should be used in the diets of this species.


Fat-soluble vitamins, Physiology, Proximate composition, Vitamin requirement, Water-soluble vitamins.

Full Text:



AOAC. 1998. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Official Methods of Analysis. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA.

Barrows, F.T.; Gibson Gaylord, T.; Sealey, W.M.; Porter, L. & Smith, C.E. 2008. The effect of vitamin premix in extruded plant-based and fish meal based diets on growth efficiency and health of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture 283: 148-155.

Chaiyapechara, S.; Casten, M.T.; Hardy, R.W & Dong, F.M. 2003. Fish performance, fillet characteristics, and health assessment index of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets containing adequate and high concentrations of lipid and vitamin E. Aquaculture 219: 715-738.

Clerton, P.; Troutaud, D.; Verlhac, V.; Gabaudan, J. & Deschaux, P. 2001. Dietary vitamin E and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) phagocyte functions: effect on gut and head kidney leucocytes. Fish and Shellfish Immunology 11: 1-13.

Congleton, J.L. & Wagner, T. 2006. Blood-chemistry indicators of nutritional status in juvenile salmonids. Journal of Fish Biology 69: 473-490.

Dabrowski, K.; Lee, K-J.; Guz, L.; Verlhac, V. & Gabaudan, J. 2004. Effects of dietary ascorbic acid on oxygen stress (hypoxia or hyperoxia), growth and tissue vitamin concentrations in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 233: 383-392.

Drobkin, D.R. 1945. Crystallographic and optical properties of human hemoglobin: a proposal for the standardization of hemoglobin. American Journal of Medical Science 209: 268-270.

Ellis, T.; James, J.D.; Stewart, C. & Scott, A.P. 2004. A noninvasive stress assay based upon measurement of free cortisol released into the water by rainbow trout. Journal of Fish Biology 65: 1233-1252.

Falahatkar, B.; Dabrowski, K. & Arslan, M. 2011. Ascorbic acid turnover in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss: is there a vitamin enrichment effect during embryonic period on the juvenile fish "sensitivity" to deficiency? Aquaculture 320: 99-105.

Falahatkar, B.; Safarpour Amlashi, A. & Conte, F. 2012. Effect of Dietary Vitamin E on cortisol and glucose responses to handling stress in juvenile beluga Huso huso. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 24: 11-16.

Falahatkar, B.; Soltani, M.; Abtahi, B.; Kalbassi, M.R. & Pourkazemi, M. 2006. Effects of dietary vitamin C supplementation on performance, tissue chemical composition and alkaline phosphatase activity in beluga sturgeon (Huso huso). Journal of Applied Ichthyology 22: 283-286.

FAO. 2012. Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations, cultured aquatic species information programme: Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792). (accessed 24 June 2015).

Garcia, F.; Pilarski, F.; Onaka, E.M.; de Moraes, F.R. & Martins, M.L. 2007. Hematology of Piaractus mesopotamicus fed diets supplemented with vitamins C and E, challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila. Aquaculture 271: 39-46.

Gatta, P.P.; Pirini, M.; Testi, S.; Vignola, G. & Monetti P.G. 2000. The influence of different levels of dietary vitamin E on sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax flesh quality. Aquaculture Nutrition 6: 47-52.

Holčik, M.F. 2003. Vitamin D: a millennium perspective. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 88: 296-307.

Hosoya, S.; Johnson, S.C.; Iwama, G.K.; Gamperl, A.K. & Afonso, L.O.B. 2007. Changes in free and total plasma cortisol levels in juvenile haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) exposed to long-term handling stress. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 146A: 78-86.

Huang, C.H.; Higgs, D.A.; Balfry, S.K. & Devlin, R.H. 2004. Effect of dietary vitamin E level on growth, tissue lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte fragility of transgenic Coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 139A: 199-204.

Hung, S.S.O. 1989. Choline requirement of hatchery-produced juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). Aquaculture 78: 183-194.

Jones, W.T.; Hammer, H.S.; Powell, M.L.; Gibbs, V.K.; Lawrence, J.M.; Lawrence, A.L. & Watts, S.A. 2012. The effect of vitamins on weight gain and organ production in the sea urchin, Lytechinus variegates (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 43: 39-50.

Kopp, R. & Hetesa J. 2000. Changes of haemotological indices of juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) under influence of natural population Cyanobacterial water blooms. Acta Veterinaria Brno 69: 131-137.

Lemaire, P.; Drai, P.; Mathieu, A.; Lemaire, S.; Carrière, S.; Giudicelli, J. & Lafaurie, M. 1999. Changes with different diets in plasma enzymes (GOT, GPT, LDH, ALP) and plasma lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides) of sea-bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Aquaculture, 93: 63-75.

Lygren, B.; Hamre, K. & Waagbo, R. 2000. Effect of induced hyperoxia on the antioxidant status of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. fed three different levels of dietary vitamin E. Aquaculture Research 31: 401-407.

Monje, P.M.; Dizon, M.P. & Divina, C.C. 1996. The effect of different levels of vitamins premix in the diet of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings. In: the national seminar-workshop on fish nutrition and feeds, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, pp. 94-99.

Montero, D.; Tort, L.; Robaina, L.; Vergara, J.M. & Izquierdo, M.S. 2001. Low vitamin E in diet reduces stress resistance of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) juveniles. Fish and Shellfish Immunology 11: 473-490.

NRC. 2011. National Research Council, Nutrient requirements of fish and shrimp. The National Academies Press, Washington D.C.

Perdikaris, C.; Nathanailides, C.; Gouva, E.; Gabriel, U.U.; Bitchava, K.; Athanasopoulou, F.; Paschou, A. & Paschos, I. 2010. Size-relative effectiveness of clove oil as an anaesthetic for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792) and goldfish (Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758). Acta Veterinaria Brno 79: 81-490.

Rafatnezhad, S.; Falahatkar, B. & Tolouei Gilani, M.H. 2008. Effects of stocking density on haematological parameters, growth and fin erosion of great sturgeon (Huso huso) juveniles. Aquaculture Research 39: 506-1513.

Rajamanickam, V. & Muthuswamy, N. 2008. Effect of heavy metals induced toxicity on metabolic biomarkers in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology 2: 192–200.

Řehulka, J. 2000. Influence of astaxanthin on growth rate, condition and some blood indices of rainbow trout. Aquaculture 190: 27-47.

Safarpour Amlashi, A.; Falahatkar, B.; Sattari, M. & Tolouei Gilani M.H. 2011. Effect of dietary vitamin E on growth, muscle composition, hematological and immunological parameters of sub-yearling beluga Huso huso L. Fish and Shellfish Immunology 30: 807-814.

Shafaeipour, A.; Gorjipour, E.; Kamayi, K. & Falahatkar, B. 2011. Effects of different levels of folic acid and vitamin C on rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 42: 281-286.

Shiau, S-Y. & Lin Y-H. 2006. Vitamins requirements of tilapia-A review. VIII Simposium Internacional de Nutrición Acuícola. In: Universidad Autínoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, Nuevo León, México. 15-17 Noviembre, pp. 129–138.

Shimeno, S. 1991. Yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata. In: Roberts, R.J. (ed.), Handbook of Nutrient Requirements of Finfish. CRC Press, USA, pp. 181-191.

Singh, M.K.; Sharma, J.G. & Chakrabarti, R. 2013. Effect of UV-B radiation on the defense system of Labeo rohita (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) larvae and its modulation by seed of devil’s horsewhip, Achyranthes aspera. Acta Ichthyologica Piscatoria 43: 119-126.

Sprecher, D. 2000. What You Should Know about Triglycerides: The Missing Link in Heart Disease. Harper Torch Publishers, New York, USA.

Sugita, H.; Miyajima, C. & Deguchi Y. 1991. The vitamin B12-producing ability of the intestinal microflora of freshwater fish. Aquaculture 92: 267-276.

Trenzado, C.E.; Morales, A.E. & de la Higuera, M. 2008. Physiological changes in rainbow trout held under crowded conditions and fed diets with different levels of vitamins E and C and highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA). Aquaculture 277: 293-302.

Wen, H.; Yan, A.S.; Gao, Q.; Jiang, M. & Wei Q.W. 2008. Dietary vitamin A requirement of juvenile Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii). Journal of Applied Ichthyology 24: 534-538.

Wilson R.P. & Poe W.E. 1988. Choline nutrition of fingerling channel catfish. Aquaculture 68: 65-67.

Xie, Z.; Niu, C.; Zhang, Z. & Bao, L. 2006. Dietary ascorbic acid may be necessary for enhancing the immune response in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii), a species capable of ascorbic acid biosynthesis. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 145A: 152-157.

Yang, J.L. & Chen H.C. 2003. Serum metabolic enzyme activities and hepatocyte ultrastructure of common carp after gallium exposure. Zoological Studies 42: 455-461.

Yasmin, A.; Takeuchi, T.; Hirota, T. & Ishida, S. 2004. Effects of conjugated linolenic acid (cis-9, trans-11, cis-13-18:3) on growth performance and lipid composition of fingerling rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fisheries Science 70: 1009-1018.

Yildirim-Aksoy, M.; Lim, C.; Li M.H. & Klesius, P.H. 2008. Interaction between dietary levels of vitamins C and E on growth and immune responses in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque). Aquaculture Research 39: 1198-1209.

Yildiz, M. 2004. The study of fillet quality and the growth performance of Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed with diets containing different amounts of vitamin E. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 4: 81-86.


  • There are currently no refbacks.