Main Article Content


The fermented sausage product was prepared from beef and belly fat by a fermentation process and inoculated using separate concentrations 3 and 5% of Lactobacillus plantarum and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus at 37°C for 48 hours after adding salt, sugar, spices and garlic and packed in artificial casings. Sausages are matured at 7°C with 75-80% relative humidity for 4 weeks. The changes in the microbial quality of the fermented sausage were examined during this period. Based on the results, the sausage samples inoculated with 5% L. plantarum bacterium showed the highest numbers of starter bacteria reaching a logarithm of 7.63 colony units/ g, and reducing not accepted microorganisms such as coliform bacteria, psychrotrophic bacteria, molds, and yeasts, and Staphylococcus aureus. Salmonella has not been found in all treatments The pollinated coefficients with the same concentration of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was registered second, as the logarithm in the fourth week was 7.48 colony units/g compared with other sausages treatments.


Lactic acid bacteria Fermented sausage Lactobacillus Storage

Article Details

How to Cite
AL-QURESHI, Z. S., AL- HUSSAINY, K. S. ., & AL-IMARA, E. A. (2022). Effect of lactic acid bacteria in improving microbial properties of fermented sausage under refrigeration storage. Iranian Journal of Ichthyology, 9, 474–482. Retrieved from


  1. Aksu, M.I.; Kaya, M. & Oz, F. 2008. Effect of Lactobacillus sakei and Staphylococcus xylosus on the inhibition of Escherichia coli O157: H7 in pastirma, a dry‐cured meat product. Journal of Food Safety 28(1): 47-58.‏
  2. Al-Faydi, I.A.W. 1996. Technical and technical study to develop the quality of Iraqi fermented sausages. PhD thesis. Department of Animal Production, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Iraq.
  3. Al- Hilphy, N.; Abd, A.H.; Al-Hussainy, K.S.J. & Al-Zubaidi, M.A.K. 2017. Effect of using different concentration of Bifidobacterium bifidum Metabolites products in biopreservation for meat patties. Dhi Qar University Journal of Agricultural Research 6(1): 21-40.
  4. Al-Zobaie, A.H.H. 2010. The use of probiotics in the production of Iraqi pastrami from beef and camel meat. PhD thesis. Department of Food Sciences, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Iraq
  5. Andrews, W. 1997. Manual of food quality control. 4. Rev. 1. Microbiological analysis. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper No. 14/4 (Rev. 1), Rome, Italy. 347 p.
  6. APHA: American Public Health Association. 1978. Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products.14th ed., Marth. E.H. (ed.). American Public Health Association. Washington .D.C.
  7. Bintsis, T. 2018. Lactic acid bacteria: Their applications in foods. Journal of Bacteriology and Mycology 6(2): 89-94.
  8. Candogan, K. & Acton, J.C. 2001. Proteolysis in sausage fermentation. GIDA 26: 247-253.
  9. Castillejo-Rodriguez, A.M.; García Gimeno, R.M.; Cosano, G.Z.; Alcalá, E.B. & Rodríguez Pérez, M.R. 2002. Assessment of mathematical models for predicting Staphylococcus aureus growth in cooked meat products. Journal of Food Protection 65(4): 659-665.‏
  10. Charlier, C.; Cretenet, M.; Even, S. & Loir, Y. 2009. Interactions between Staphylococcus aureus and lactic acid bacteria: An old story with new perspectives. International Journal of Food Microbiology 131: 30-39.
  11. Drosinos, E.H.; Mataragas, M.; Kampani, A.; Kritikos, D. & Metaxopoulos, I. 2006. Inhibitory event of organic acid salts on spoilage Xora in culture medium and cured cooked meat products under commercial manufacturing conditions. Meat Science 73:75-81.
  12. Drosinos, M.; Mataragas, N.; Xiraphi, G.; Moschonas, F. & Gaitis, J.M. 2005. Characterization of the microbial flora from a traditional Greek fermented sausage. Meat Science 69: 307-317.
  13. Fadda, S.; Oliver, G. & Vignolo, G. 2002. Protein degradation by Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei in a sausage model system. Journal of Food Science 67(3): 1179-1183.‏
  14. Furlán, L.T.R.; Padilla, A.P. & Campderrós, M.E. 2014. Development of reduced fat minced meats using inulin and bovine plasma proteins as fat replacers. Meat Science 96(2): 762-768.‏
  15. Klingberg, T.D.; Axelsson L.; Naterstad, K.; Elsser, D. & Budde, B.B. 2005. Identification of potential probiotic starter cultures for Scandinavian-type fermented sausages. International Journal of Food Microbiology 105: 419-431.
  16. Koutsoumanis, K.P.; Kendall, P.A. & Sofos, J.N. 2004. A comparative study on growth limits of Listeria monocytogenes as affected by temperature, pH and Aw when grown in suspension or on a solid surface. Food Microbiology 21: 415-422
  17. Laranjo, M.; Potes, M.E. & Elias, M. 2019. Role of Starter Cultures on the Safety of Fermented Meat Products. Frontiers in Microbiology 10: 853.
  18. Liu, Y.; Wan, Z.; Yohannes, K.W.; Yu, Q.; Yang, Z.; Li, H.; Liu, J. & Wang, J. 2021. Functional Characteristics of Lactobacillus and Yeast Single Starter Cultures in the Ripening Process of Dry Fermented Sausage. Frontiers in Microbiology 11: 611260.
  19. Majeed, G.H.; Nasser, A.K. & Mohsen, R.H. 2007. Use of Lactobacillus acidophilus to improve some characteristics of ground beef tablets. Basra Journal of Agricultural Sciences 20 (2): 31-39.
  20. Majeed, G.H.; Jassem, M.A. & Hassan, Z.A.A. 2002. The importance of using local isolates of lactic acid bacteria and garlic in making pastrami. Basra Journal of Agricultural Sciences 15(3): 113-117.
  21. Minor-Pérez, H.; Ponce-Alquicira, E.; Macı́as-Bravo, S. & Guerrero-Legarreta, I. 2004. Changes in fatty acids and microbial populations of pork inoculated with two biopreservative strains. Meat Science 66(4): 793-800.
  22. ‏ Nassif, Z.M.; & Mirza, R.A. 2012. The use of metabolites of local Lactobacillus plantarum isolates in the biopreservation of some foods, Al-Furat. Journal of Agricultural Sciences 4(3): 93-108.
  23. Nie, X.; Lin, S. & Zhang, Q. 2014. Proteolytic characterisation in grass carp sausage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Food Chemistry 145: 840-844.‏
  24. Pepe, O.; Blaiotta, G.; Bucci, F.; Anastasio, M.; Aponte, M. & Villani, F. 2006. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcal enterotoxin A in breaded chicken products: detection and behavior during the cooking process. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72(11): 7057-7062.‏
  25. Porto-Fett, A.C.S.; Hwang, C.A.; Call, J.E.; Juneja, V.K.; Ingham, S.C.; Ingham, B.H. & Luchansky, J.B. 2008. Viability of multi-strain mixtures of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, or Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated into the batter or onto the surface of a soudjouk-style fermented semi-dry sausage. Food Microbiology 25(6): 793-801.‏
  26. Reddy, K.J.; Pandey, M.C.; Harilal, P.T. & Radhakrishna, K. 2013. Optimization and quality evaluation of freeze dried mutton manchurian. International Food Research Journal 20(6): 3101-3106.
  27. Robinson, R.K. 1990. Dairy microbiology. Vol.2 the microbiology of milk products. Elsevier applied Sci. London & New York.
  28. Roserio, L.C.; Gomes, H.; Goncalves, H.; Sol, M.; Cercas, R. & Santos, C. 2010. Effect of processing on proteolytic and amines formation in a portuguese traditional dry-fermented ripennd sausage Chourico Grosso de Estremoz e Borba PGI. Meat Science 84: 172-179.
  29. Simon, S.S. & Sanjeev, S. 2007. Prevalence of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in fishery products and fish processing factory workers. Food Control 18(12):1565-1568.‏
  30. Skandamis, P.N.; Stopforth, J.D.; Kendall, P.A.; Belk, K.E.; Scanga, J.A.; Smith, G.C. & Sofos, J.N. 2007. Modeling the effect of inoculum size and acid adaptation on growth/no growth interface of Escherichia coli O157:H7. International Journal of Food Microbiology 120(3): 237-249.‏
  31. Soyer, A.; Ertaş, A.H. & Üzümcüogˇlu, Ü. 2005. Effect of processing conditions on the quality of naturally fermented Turkish sausages (sucuks). Meat Science 69(1): 135-141.‏
  32. Speak, M. 1984. Compendium of Method for the Microbiological Examination for Food. 2nd Ed., Washington, D.C. USA.
  33. Talon, R.; Leroy, S. & Lebert, I. 2007. Microbial ecosystems of traditional fermented meat products: The importance of indigenous starters. Meat Science 77: 55-62.
  34. Toldrá, F.; Hui, Y.H.; Astiasaran, I. & Sebranek, J.G. 2015. Handbook of fermented meat Wiley-Blackwell Publisher.