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The lead is highly complex and constantly being released into the atmosphere, mainly from agricultural and industrial activity, which is toxic to animals. The present study was conducted to investigate the lead accumulation in the different organs (blood, liver, kidney, and small intestine), and the histological and biochemical changes in the local geese birds with a comparison between urban and rural regions of the Basrah city. The results the internal organs appeared the highest accumulation of lead, copper, cadmium and zinc in the urban regions. The biochemical parameters showed elevation in liver enzymes (AST, ALT and ALP) and glucose of the blood higher in the urban region compassion with the rural region. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals showed the highest values in the urban regions in the order of liver> small intestine > kidney > brain > blood. The mean of the heavy metals bioaccumulation in the different organs was recorded as Pb > Cu > Zn > Cd at the urban and rural regions. In histological examinations, there were differences in the structure of the liver, kidney and small intestine between urban and rural regions birds, represented by necrosis, degeneration and hypertrophy states. The geese birds in the urban regions showed a high lead accumulation and negative effect on biochemical and tissue values.


Toxicity Birds Heavy metals Histopathology

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SADOON, A. H., SHEHAB, Z. A., KAREEM, D. A., & MAJEED, M. F. . (2022). Effect of some heavy metals on accumulation, histological and biochemical changes in local geese: A comparison between urban and rural regions. Iranian Journal of Ichthyology, 9, 216–226. Retrieved from


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