Main Article Content


The term “mahseer” is collectively used for three genera of the family Cyprinidae namely Tor, Neolissochilus and Naziritor. Among mahseers, Tor putitora, popularly known as Golden Mahseer, is one of the most important fishes in the Himalayan regions and South Asia. It is commercially important as an edible fish and a popular game fish. The present study is an attempt to understand the phylogenetic relationship of Tor putitora with other species of mahseers using the mitochondrial partial 12S rRNA gene. The phylogenetic analyses revealed that Neolissochilus is a sister genus of Tor and Tor putitora is more closely related to Tor tor and Tor mosal mahanadicus as compared to other species of Tor.


Mahseer Taxonomic status Evolutionary relationships Tor putitora

Article Details

Author Biographies

Anuragini KADWALIA, Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.

Research Scholar Department of zoology

Phuntsog DOLMA, Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.

Research Scholar, Department of Zoology

Yogesh RAWAL, Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.

Guide and Chairperson, Department of Zoology

How to Cite
KADWALIA, A., DOLMA, P., RANA, K., RAWAL, Y., & CHAUHAN, A. (2023). Phylogenetic analysis of Tor putitora (Hamilton, 1822) from Rivers Sutlej, Beas and Yamuna using 12S rRNA gene sequences. Iranian Journal of Ichthyology, 10(3), 158–165.


  1. Bhatt, J.P. & Pandit, M.K. 2016. Endangered Golden mahseer Tor putitora Hamilton: a review of natural history. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 26(1): 25-38.
  2. Brown, W.M. 1985. The mitochondrial genome of animals. In: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics, Plenum USA. pp. 95-130.
  3. Chan, A.H.E.; Chaisiri, K.; Morand, S.; Saralamba, N. & Thaenkham, U. 2020. Evaluation and utility of mitochondrial ribosomal genes for molecular systematics of parasitic nematodes. Parasites & Vectors 13(1): 364.
  4. Edgar, R.C. 2004. MUSCLE: a multiple sequence alignment method with reduced time and space complexity. BMC Bioinformatics 5(1): 113.
  5. Fricke, R.; Eschmeyer, W.N. & Fong, J.D. 2023. Species by family/subfamily. ( Electronic version accessed 24/11/2023.
  6. Jaafar, F.; Na-Nakorn, U.; Srisapoome, P.; Amornsakun, T.; Duong, T.Y.; Gonzales-Plasus, M. M.; Hoang, D.H. & Parhar, I.S. 2021. A current update on the distribution, morphological features, and genetic identity of the Southeast Asian Mahseers, Tor species. Biology 10(4): 286.
  7. Jayaram, J.C. 2010. The Freshwater Fishes of Indian Region. Narendra Publishing House, India.
  8. Jha, B.; Rayamajhi, A.; Dahanukar, N.; Harrison, A. & Pinder, A.C. 2018. Tor putitora. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  9. Jha, B.R. & Rayamajhi, A. 2010. Tor putitora. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  10. Jirsová, D.; Štefka, J.; Blažek, R.; Malala, J.O.; Lotuliakou, D.E.; Mahmoud, Z.N. & Jirků, M. 2019. From taxonomic deflation to newly detected cryptic species: Hidden diversity in a widespread African squeaker catfish. Scientific Reports 9: 15748.
  11. Khare, P.; Mohindra, V.; Barman, A.S.; Singh, R.K. & Lal, K.K. 2014. Molecular evidence to reconcile taxonomic instability in mahseer species (Pisces: Cyprinidae) of India. Organisms Diversity & Evolution 14(3): 307-326.
  12. Kozlov, A.M.; Darriba, D.; Flouri, T.; Morel, B. & Stamatakis, A. 2019. RAxML-NG: a fast, scalable and user-friendly tool for maximum likelihood phylogenetic inference. Bioinformatics 35: 4453-4455.
  13. Kumar, R.; Singh, M.; Kushwaha, B.; Nagpure, N.S.; Mani, I. & Lakra, W.S. 2013. Molecular characterization of major and minor rDNA repeats and genetic variability assessment in different species of mahseer found in North India. Gene 527(1): 248-258.
  14. Lakra, W.; Goswami, M. & Sarkar, U. 2010. Conservation biology of Indian Mahseers. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 80: 98-108.
  15. Magalhaes, I.S.; Ornelas-Garcıa, C.P.; Leal-Cardin, M.; Ramírez, T. & Barluenga, M. 2015. Untangling the evolutionary history of a highly polymorphic species: introgressive hybridization and high genetic structure in the desert cichlid fish Herichtys minckleyi. Molecular Ecology 24: 4505-4520.
  16. Mani, I.; Kumar, R.; Singh, M.; Kushwaha, B.; Nagpure, N.S.; Srivastava, P.K.; Murmu, K; Rao D.S.K. & Lakra, W.S. 2009. Karyotypic diversity and evolution of seven mahseer species (Cyprinidae) from India. Journal of Fish Biology 75(5): 1079-1091.
  17. Menon, A. 1992. Taxonomy of mahseer fishes of the genus Tor Gray with description of a new species from the Deccan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 89: 210-228.
  18. Mohindra, V.; Khare, P.; Lal, K.; Punia, P.; Singh, R.; Barman, A. & Lakra, W. 2007. Molecular discrimination of five Mahseer species from Indian peninsula using RAPD analysis. Current Zoology 53: 725-732.
  19. Nautiyal, P. 2014. Review of the Art and Science of Indian Mahseer (Game Fish) from Nineteenth to Twentieth Century: Road to Extinction or Conservation? In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section B: Biological Science 84(2): 215-236.
  20. Ng, C.K. 2004. Kings of the rivers: Mahseer in Malaysia and the region. Inter Sea Fishery, Malaysia.
  21. Nguyen, T.T.T.; Brett, I.; Sungan, S.; Gooley, G.; Sim, S.Y.; Tinggi, D. & De Silva, S.S. 2006. Mitochondrial DNA diversity of brood stock of two indigenous mahseer species, Tor tambroides and Tor douronensis (Cyprinidae) cultured in Sarawak, Malaysia. Aquaculture 253: 259-269.
  22. Panicker, V.P.; Haridas, P.C.; Narayanan, A.; Mohammed, S. & Babu, B.C. 2019. Mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene sequence analysis, a tool for species identification. Journal of Wildlife and Biodiversity 3(3): 29-35.
  23. Pavan-Kumar, A.; Raman, S.; Koringa, P.G.; Patel, N.; Shah, T.; Singh, R.K.; Krishna, G.; Joshi, C.G.; Gireesh-Babu, P. & Chaudhari, A. 2016. Complete mitochondrial genome of threatened mahseer Tor tor (Hamilton 1822) and its phylogenetic relationship within Cyprinidae family. Journal of Genetics 95(4): 853-863.
  24. Pinder, A.C.; Britton, J.R.; Harrison, A.J.; Nautiyal, P.; Bower, S.D.; Cooke, S.J. & Raghavan, R. 2019. Mahseer (Tor spp.) fishes of the world: status, challenges and opportunities for conservation. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 29(2): 417-452.
  25. Roberts, T.R. 1999. Fishes of the cyprinid genus Tor in the Nam Theun watershed (Mekong Basin) of Laos, with description of a new species. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 47(1): 225-236.
  26. Ronquist, F.; Teslenko, M.; van der Mark, P.; Ayres, D.L.; Darling, A.; Höhna, S.; Larget, B.; Liu, L.; Suchard, M.A. & Huelsenbeck, J.P. 2012. MrBayes 3.2: Efficient Bayesian Phylogenetic Inference and Model Choice Across a Large Model Space. Systematic Biology 61: 539-542.
  27. Sati, J.; Sah, S.; Pandey, H.; Ali, S.; Sahoo, P.; Pande, V. & Baratz, A. 2013. Phylogenetic relationship and molecular identification of five Indian Mahseer species using COI sequence. Journal of Environmental Biology 34(5): 933-939.
  28. Sharma, K.K.; Mohan, V.C. & Kouser, U. 2015. Comparative accounts of merestic Count and morphometric measurements of Golden Mahseer (Tor putitora) among Chenani hydroelectric dam, Jhajjar stream and Dansar stream. (J&K) India. Indian Journal of Applied Research 5(2): 772-774.
  29. Sivaraman, G.K.; Barat, A.; Kapila, R.; Karabasanavar, N. & Mahanta, P. 2009. Molecular phylogeny of Cyprinid fishes of India using 12S rRNA gene sequences. The IUP Journal of Genetics & Evolution 2(4): 43-53.
  30. Sivaraman, G.K.; Barat, A.; Ali, S.; Joshi, K.D. & Mahanta, P.C. 2010. Phylogenetic analysis of coldwater fish species (Cyprinids) of India using targeted mtDNA and RAPD-PCR markers. IUP Journal of Genetics & Evolution 3(4): 42-49.
  31. Sugunan, V.V. 1995. Reservoir Fisheries of India. FAO, Italy.
  32. Talwar, P.K. & Jhingran, A.G. 1991. Inland Fisheries of India and Adjacent Countries. Vol 1. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., India.
  33. Talwar, P.K. & Jhingran, A.G. 1992. Inland Fisheries of India and Adjacent Countries. Vol 2. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., India.
  34. Tamura, K.; Stecher, G. & Kumar, S. 2021. MEGA11: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 11. Molecular Biology and Evolution 38: 3022-3027.
  35. Ude, G.N.; Igwe, D.O.; Brown, C.; Jackson, M.; Bangura, A.; Ozokonkwo-Alor, O.; Ihearahu, O.C.; Chosen, O.; Okoro, M.; Ene, C.; Chieze, V.; Unachukwu, M.; Onyia, C.; Acquaah, G.; Ogbonna, J. & Das, A. 2020. DNA barcoding for identification of fish species from freshwater in Enugu and Anambra States of Nigeria. Conservation Genetics Resources 12: 643-658.
  36. Wang, T.; Zhang, Y.-p.; Yang, Z.-y.; Liu, Z. & Du, Y.-y. 2020. DNA barcoding reveals cryptic diversity in the underestimated genus Triplophysa (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae, Nemacheilinae) from the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. BMC Evolutionary Biology 20: 151.
  37. Walton, S.E.; Gan, H.M.; Raghavan, R.; Pinder, A.C. & Ahmad, A. 2017. Disentangling the taxonomy of the Mahseers (Tor spp.) of Malaysia: An integrated approach using morphology, genetics and historical records. Reviews in Fisheries Science & Aquaculture 25(3): 171-183.
  38. Yadav, P.; Kumar, A.; Hussain, S.A. & Gupta, S.K. 2020. Evaluation of the effect of longitudinal connectivity in population genetic structure of endangered golden mahseer, Tor putitora (Cyprinidae), in Himalayan rivers: Implications for its conservation. PLoS One 15(6): e0234377.
  39. Yang, L.; Tan, Z.; Wang, D.; Xue, L.; Guan, M.-x.; Huang, T. & Li, R. 2014. Species identification through mitochondrial rRNA genetic analysis. Scientific Reports 4(1): 4089.
  40. Zhou, W. & Cui, G.H. 1996. A review of Tor species from the Lancangjiang River (upper Mekong River), China (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 7(2): 131-142.