Main Article Content


The current study aimed to estimate the activities of the two antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase and peroxidase in fronds and ripening enzymes (invertase and cellulose) in fruits of two date palm cultivars, viz. Sayer and Halawi at Khalal stage subjected to irrigation interval periods. The treatments include irrigating by amount 150 L. with different interval periods. The results showed that antioxidant enzymes activity increased by increasing interval period, where treatment 3 recorded the highest concentrations of the catalase and peroxidase, while ripening enzymes decreased with increasing water deficit period.


Antioxidant enzymes Ripening enzymes Cultivar

Article Details

How to Cite
FADHIL, A. A., ABD, A. M., & ALI, A. H. (2022). Impact of different irrigation programs on enzymatic activities in leaves, and fruit ripening enzymes of two date palm cultivars of Sayer and Halawi. Iranian Journal of Ichthyology, 9, 88–93. Retrieved from


    Abdul-Wahid, A.H. 2017. Mechanisms of date palm Phoenix dactylifera salt tolerance, effect of water salinity on some cell wall enzymes activity during development of Sayer date palm fruit. AAB Bioflux 93:154-160.
    Abdul-Wahed, A.H. & AbdulKareem, M.A. 2004. Changes inactivation of two enzymes invertase, cellulose, and some chemical material during growth and ripening of date palm fruits Phoenix dactylifera L c.v Hillawi. Basrah Journal for Date Palm 3 (1-2): 1.
    Al-Bakir, A. & Whitaker, J.R. 1978. Purification and characterization of inverses from dates (Phoenix dactylifera L., VAR. Zahde). Journal of Food Biochemistry 2: 133-160.
    Alhammadi, M.S. & Kurup, S.S. 2012. Impact of salinity stress on date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L) - a review,” in Crop Production Technologies, P. Sharma, V. Abrol (eds.) (Croatia: Rijek).
    Alpresem, W.F.F. & Alamery, H. 2019. Effect of water stress on enzymatic activity of data palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cv. Halawi and Barhi, Conference: 9th International Conference for Sustainable Agricultural Development 4-6 March 2019. Fayoum Journal of Agricultural Research and Development 33(1B): 825-833.
    Ati, M.A. 2016. Effect of Spraying Some Environmental Stress Compounds on Some Physiological and Anatomical and Productivity Characters of Phoenix dactylifera L. CV. Hillawi. Ph.D. Thesis. College of Agriculture- University of Basrah.
    Du, B.; Kreuzwieser, J.; Winkler, J.B.; Ghirardo, A.; Schnitzler, J.P; Ache, P.; Alfarraj, S.; Hedrich, R.; White, P. & Rennenberg, H. 2018. Physiological responses of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) seedlings to acute ozone exposure at high temperature. Environmental Pollution 242: 905-913.
    Elshibli, S.; Elshibli, M.S. & Korpelainen, H. 2016. Growth and photosynthetic CO2 responses of date palm plants to water availability. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture 28: 58-65.
    El Rabey, H.A.; Al-Malki, A.L.; Abulnaja, K.O. & Rohde, W. 2015. Proteome Analysis for understanding abiotic stress (salinity and drought) tolerance in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.). International Journal of Genomics 2015: 1-11.
    Fotopoulos, V. 2005. Plant invertases: structure, function and regulation of a diverse enzyme family. Journal of Biological Research 4: 127-137.
    Goth, L. 1991. A simple method for determination of serum catalase & revision of references rang. Clinica Chimica Acta 196: 143-152.
    Hazzouri, K.M.; Flowers, J.M.; Nelson, D.; Lemansour, A.; Masmoudi, K. & Amiri, K. 2020. Prospects for the study and improvement of abiotic stress tolerance indate palms in the post-genomics era. Frontiers in Plant Science 11: 293.
    Hsiao T.C. 1973. Plant response to water stress. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 24: 524-570.
    Haider, M.S.; Khan, I.A.; Nagvi, S.A.; Taskani, M.J.; Khan, R.W.; Nafees, M. & Pasha, I. 2013. Fruit development stages effects on Biochemical attributes in date palm. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 50(4):577- 583.
    Haider, M.S.; Khan, I.A.; Nagvi, S.A.; Taskani, M.J.; Shahid, M. & Ahmed, E. 2014. Flesh and fiber characterization at three different edible stages of date fruit development. International Journal of Food and Nutritional Sciences 3(4): 16-22.
    Mumtaz Khan, M. & Prathapar, S.A. 2012. Dates Production, Processing, Food, and Medicinal Values Chapter: Chapter 4. Water Management in Date Palm Groves Publisher: CRC Press 2012. Editors: A. Manickavasagan, M. Mohamed Essa, and E Sukumar
    Konno, H.; Yamasaki, Y.; Sugimoto, M. & Takeda, K. 2008. Differential changes in cell wall matrix polysaccharides and glycoside-hydrolyzing enzymes in developing wheat seedlings differing in drought tolerance. Journal of Plant Physiology 165: 745-754.
    Mortazavi, S.M.H.; Azizollahi, F. & Moalemi, N. 2015. Some Quality Attributes and Biochemical Properties of Nine Iranian Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Cultivars at Different Stages of Fruit Development. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology 2(2): 161-171
    Racchi, M.L. 2013. Antioxidant Defenses in Plants with Attention to Prunus and Citrus spp. Antioxidants 2: 340-369.
    Restegar, S.; Rehemi, M.A. & Gholami, M. 2012. Enzyme activity and biochemical changes of three date palm cultivars with different softening pattern during ripening Food Chemistry 134(3): 1279-86.
    Sakran, M.; El Rubey, H.A.; Almulaiky, Y.Q.; Al Duais, M.A.; Elbakry, M. & Faridi, U. 2018. The Antioxidant enzymatic activity of date palm seedlings under abiotic drought stress. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research 52 p.
    Whitaker, J.R. & Bernhard, R.A. 1972. Experiment for an introduction to enzymology. The Wibber Press. USA.
    Yaish, MW. 2015. Proline accumulation is a general response to abiotic stress in the date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Genetics and Molecular Research 14: 9943-9950.
    Yaish, M.W. & Kumar, P.P. 2015. Salt tolerance research in date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.), past, present, and future perspectives. Frontiers in Plant Science 6: 348
    Wang, W.B.; Kim, Y.H.; Lee, H.S.; Kim, K.Y.; Deng, X.P. & Kwak, S.S. 2009. Analysis of antioxidant enzyme activity during germination of alfalfa under salt and drought stresses, Plant Physiol. Biochemistry 47(7): 570-577.
    Zaid, A. & de Wet, P.F. 2002. Origin Geographical Distribution and Nutritional Values of Date Palm. In: A. Zaid (Ed.), Date Palm Cultivation, FAO, Rome. pp: 29- 44.