Main Article Content


Batoid fishes, an ionic group commonly known as rays are universally vulnerable and some of them critically endangered owing to fisheries related activities. This study validates presence of two vulnerable butterfly rays, Gymnura micrura and Gymnura poecilura captured in the northern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan, Indian Ocean for the first time. The IUCN listed both of the species as vulnerable whereas FishBase recorded Atlantic and Pacific Ocean as their native habitats. These rare species of the family Gymnuridae are now added in the ichthyofaunal diversity of Pakistan. The detailed taxonomic description and an image of each species are provided.


New record Vulnerable fishes Taxonomy IUCN red list Pakistan waters

Article Details

Author Biographies

Kishwar Kumar Kachhi, CEMB University of Karachi

CEMB Ph. D student

SHER KHAN PANHWAR, Centre of Excellence in Marine Biology University of Karachi, Sindh

Centre of Excellence in Marine Biology

How to Cite
Kachhi, K. K., PANHWAR, S. K., KACHHI, K. K., PANHWAR, S. K., & KASHANI, I. (2022). Occurrence of two vulnerable butterfly rays Gymnura micrura (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) and Gymnura poecilura (Shaw, 1804) (Myliobatiformes: Gymnuridae) in the northern Arabian Sea, Pakistan, Indian Ocean region. Iranian Journal of Ichthyology, 9(1), 16–22.


    Carpenter, K.E.; Krupp, D.A.; & Zajonz, U. 1997. Living marine resources of Kuwait, eastern Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates. FAO species identification field guide for fishery purposes. Col. Plates. Rome, FAO. 293 p +17
    Dulvy, N.K. & Reynolds, J.D. 1997. Evolutionary transitions among egg-laying, live-bearing and maternal inputs in sharks and rays. Proceeding of Royal Society, Biological Sciences 264: 1309-1315.
    Dulvy, N.K..; Charvet, P. & Derrick, D. 2021. Gymnura micrura. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, (Accession date 14 May 2022).
    Fatima, A.; Panhwar, S.K.; Shaikh, W.; Mairaj, M.; Farooq, N. & Jahangir, S. 2016. Preliminary Observations on Elasmobranchs Captured in Pakistan. Journal of Aquaculture and Marine Biology 4(4): 00092.
    Fricke, R.; Eschmeyer W.N. & Laan, R. 2022. Catalog of Fishes: Genera, Species, References. http:// researcharchive.calacademyorg/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp.
    Froese, R. & Pauly, D. 2021. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. Available from: (Accessed 09.2021).
    Grubbs, R.D. & Ha, D.S. 2006. Gymnura micrura. The IUCN Red List of ThreatenedSpecies. Version 2014.3. (Accessed 31.12.2021.).
    IUCN. 2021. The IUCN Red list of threatened Species. (Accessed 3.2021)
    Kizhakudan, S.J.; Akhilesh, K.V.; Thomas, S.; Yousuf, K.S.S.M.; Sobhana, K.S.; Purushottama, G.B.; Menon, M.; Dash, S.S.; Manojkumar, P.P.; Nair, R.J.; Najmudeen, T.M. & Zacharia, P.U. 2018. Field identification of batoids-a guide to Indian species, CMFRI special publication no. 132. ICAR-Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Kochi, 104 p.
    Last, P.R.; White, W.T.; de Carvalho, M.R.; Séret, B.; Stehmann, F.W. & Naylor, G.J.P. 2016. Rays of the world. Cornell University Press, Ithaca. 790 p.
    Moazzam, M. & Osmany, H.B. 2021. Species composition, commercial landings, distribution and conservation of fishes belonging to order Myliobatiformes from Pakistan. Karachi University Journal of Science 49(1): 01-26.
    Nelson, J.S.; Grande, T.C. & Wilson, M.V.H. 2016. Fishes of the world. USA: John Wiley and Sons. (5th ed., 92 p).
    Psomadakis, P.N.; Osmany, H. B. & Moazzam, M. 2015. Field Identification Guide to the Living Marine Resources of Pakistan. FAO Press, Rome.
    Robins, C.R. & Ray, G.C. 1986. A Field Guide to Atlantic Coast Fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p.
    Schaefer, J.T. & Summers, A.P. 2005. Batoid wing skeletal structure: Novel morphologies, mechanical implications, and phylogenetic patterns. Journal of Morphology 264(3): 298-313.
    Seret, B. 2006. Guia de identificacao das principais especies de raias e tubaroes do Atlantico oriental tropical, para observadores de pesca e biologos.
    Shaikh, W. & Panhwar, S.K. 2021. First record of six marine fish species caught occasionally in the northern Arabian Sea in Pakistan. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Life 29: 158-163.
    Sherman, C.S.; Akhilesh, K.V.; Bin Ali, A.; Bineesh, K.K.; Derrick, D.; Dharmadi Ebert, D.A.; Fahmi Fernando, D.; Haque, A.B.; Maung, A.; Seyha, L.; Tanay, D.; Tesfamichael, D.; Utzurrum, J.A.T.; Valinassab, T.; Vo, V.Q. & Yuneni, R.R. 2021. Gymnura poecilura. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. (Accession date 14 May 2022).
    Smith, C.L. 1997. National Audubon Society field guide to tropical marine fishes of the Caribbean, the Gulf of Mexico, Florida, the Bahamas, and Bermuda. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York. 720 p.
    Sommer, C.; Schneider, W. & Poutiers, J.M. 1996. FAO species identification field guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of Somalia. FAO, Rome. 376 p.
    Vossoughi G.H. & Vossoughi, A.R. 1999. Study of batoid fishes in northern part of Hormoz Strait, with emphasis on some species new to the Persian Gulf and Sea of Oman. Indian Journal of Fisheries 46(3): 301-306.
    White, W.T.; Last, P.R.; Stevens, J.D.; Yearsley, G.K. & Fahmi, D. 2006. Economically important sharks and rays of Indonesia. [Hiu dan pari yang bernilai ekonomis penting di Indonesia]. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra, Australia.
    WoRMS (Ed.). 2021. World Register of Marine Species. Available from at VLIZ. (Accessed 07.10.2021).
    Yokota, L.; White, W.T. & Carvalho, 2017. Butterfly rays. Family Gymnuridae. 011601 Rays Ch 23-24,27-29,31-32.