Main Article Content


The development of cartilaginous and osteological structures of the dorsal, anal and caudal fins, and axial skeleton in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was studied under three temperature treatments (22, 28 and 34ºC). Fish samples were collected periodically during the developmental stage from hatching up to 39 days post hatching. Bone and cartilage development were evaluated. The results showed that the pattern and sequence of development and appearance of these elements in the three treatments are similar, and the difference is in timing of appearance and ossification of skeletal elements. Samples from 34ºC started and ended bone formation earlier, but these process in 22ºC treatment was very late. The temperature on the onset and end of chondrogenesis and ossification had a profound effect; these effects on 22ºC treatment were severe than other treatments. The sequences of the chondrogenesis and ossification process was well conserved at all temperature treatments.


Development Skeleton Bone Cartilage Ontogeny.

Article Details

Author Biographies

Mazaher ZAMANI-FARADONBE, Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran.

PhD student

Yazdan KEIVANY, Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran.

Associate Professor
How to Cite
ZAMANI-FARADONBE, M., & KEIVANY, Y. (2019). Temperature sensitivity of skeletal development in Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei: Cichlidae). Iranian Journal of Ichthyology, 6(2), 123–137.


    Abucay, J.S.; Mair, G.C.; Skibinski, D.O. & Beardmore, J.A. 1999. Environmental sex determination: the effect of temperature and salinity on sex ratio in Oreochromis niloticus L. Aquaculture 173: 219-234.
    Bardach, J.E.; Ryther, J.H. & McLarney, W.O. 1972. Aquaculture: the Farming and Husbandry of Freshwater and Marine Organisms, John Wiley, New York, USA.
    Barón‐Aguilar, C.C.; Rhody, N.R.; Brennan, N.P.; Main, K.L.; Peebles, E.B. & Muller‐Karger, F.E. 2015. Influence of temperature on yolk resorption in common snook Centropomus undecimalis (Bloch, 1792) larvae. Aquaculture Research 46: 1679-1687.
    Blázquez, M.; Navarro-Martín, L. & Piferrer, F. 2009. Expression profiles of sex differentiation- related genes during ontogenesis in the European sea bass acclimated to two different temperatures. Journal of Experimental Zoology 312: 686-700.
    Campinho, M.A.; Moutou, K.A. & Power, D. M. 2004. Temperature sensitivity of skeletal ontogeny in Oreochromis mossambicus. Journal of Fish Biology 65: 1003-1025.
    Darias, M.J.; Lan Chow Wing, O.; Cahu, C.; Zambonino‐Infante, J.L. & Mazurais, D. 2010. Double staining protocol for developing European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 26: 280-285.‏
    Eagderi, S.; Poorbagher, H.; Parsazade, F. & Mousavi-Sabet, H. 2015. Effects of rearing temperature on the body shape of swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) during the early development using geometric morphometrics. Poeciliid Research 5: 24-30.
    Eagderi, S.; Moshayedi, F. & Mousavi-Sabet, H. 2017. Allometric growth pattern and morphological changes of Pterophyllum Scalare (Schultze, 1823) during the early development. Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A: Science 41(4): 965-970.
    Eagderi, S.; Poorbagher, H.; Moshayedi, F. & Hosseini, S.V. 2017. Morphological development and allometric growth patterns of Acipenser persicus Borodin, 1897 (Actinopterygii, Acipenseridae) during early development. International Journal of Aquatic Biology 5(3): 201-207.
    Farhang, P. & Eagderi, S. 2019. Skeletal ontogeny of the caudal complex in Caspian kutum, Rutilus kutum (Kamensky, 1901) (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) during early development. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences 17(2): 113-119.
    Faustino, M. 2002. Developmental osteology of the Gilthead Sea bream (Sparus aurata L.). Ph.D. Thesis. Faro University, Portugal. 187 p.
    Fujimura, K. & Okada, N. 2007. Development of the embryo, larva and early juvenile of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Cichlidae). Developmental staging system. Development, Growth & Differentiation, 49: 301-324.
    Fujimura, K. & Okada, N. 2008. Bone development in the jaw of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Cichlidae). Development, Growth and Differentiation 50: 339-355.
    Gavaia, P.J.; Dinis, M.T. & Cancela, M.L. 2002. Osteological development and abnormalities of the vertebral column and caudal skeleton in larval and juvenile stages of hatchery-reared Senegal sole (Solea senegalensis). Aquaculture 211: 305-323.
    Georgakopoulou, E.; Katharios, P.; Divanach, P. & Koumoundouros, G. 2010. Effect of temperature on the development of skeletal deformities in Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758). Aquaculture 308: 13-19.
    Greene, D.H.S. & Selivonchick, D.P. 1987. Lipid metabolism in fish. Progress in Lipid Research 26: 53-85.
    Hasanpour, H.; Eagderi, S.; Hosseini, S.V. & Jafari Sayadi, M.H. 2016. Histological and allometric growth analysis of eye in Caspian kutum, Rutilus kutum Kamensky, 1901 (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) during early developmental stages. International Journal of Aquatic Biology 4(4): 295-300
    Herzig, A. & Winkler, H. 1986. The influence of temperature on the embryonic development of three cyprinid fishes, Abramis brama, Chalcalburnus chalcoides mento and Vimba. Journal of Fish Biology 28: 171-181.
    Huysseune, A. 1990. Development of the anterior part of the mandible and the mandibular dentition in two species of Cichlidae (Teleostei). Cybium 14: 327-344.
    Huysseune, A. & Sire, J.Y. 1992. Development of cartilage and bone tissues of the anterior part of the mandible in cichlid fish: a light and TEM study. The Anatomical Record 233: 357-375.
    Johnston, I.A.; Lee, H.T.; Macqueen, D.J.; Paranthaman, K.; Kawashima, C.; Anwar, A.; Kinghorn, J.R. & Dalmay, T. 2009. Embryonic temperature affects muscle fibre recruitment in adult zebrafish: Genome-wide changes in gene and microRNA expression associated with the transition from hyperplastic to hypertrophic growth phenotypes. Journal of Experimental Biology 21: 21-78.
    Klimogianni, A.; Koumoundouros, G.; Kaspiris, P. & Kentouri, M. 2004. Effect of temperature on the egg and yolk-sac larval development of common pandora, Pagellus erythrinus. Marine Biology 145: 1015-1022.
    Koumoundouros, G.; Divanach, P.; Savaki, A. & Kentouri, M. 2000. Effects of three preservation methods on the evolution of swimbladder radiographic appearance in sea bass and sea bream juveniles. Aquaculture 182: 17-25.
    Lahnsteiner, F.; Kletzl, M. & Weismann, T. 2012. The effect of temperature on embryonic and yolk‐sac larval development in the burbot Lota. Journal of fish Biology 81: 977-986.
    Mair, G.C. 1992. Caudal deformity syndrome (CDS): an autosomal recessive lethal mutation in the tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Journal of Fish Diseases 15: 71-75.
    McCormick, M.I. & Molony, B.W. 1995. Influence of water temperature during the larval stage on size, age and body condition of a tropical reef fish at settlement. Marine Ecology Progress Series: 59-68.
    Murray, C.B. & Beacham, T.D. 1989. Responses of meristic characters in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) to temperature changes during development. Canadian Journal of Zoology 67: 596-600.
    Pavlidis, M.; Komoundouros, G.; Sterioti, A.; Somarakis, S.; Divanach, P. & Kentouri, M. 2000. Evidence of temperature dependent sex determination in the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax L. Journal of Experimental Zoology 287: 225-232.
    Pavlov, D.A. & Moksness, E. 1997. Development of the axial skeleton in wolffish, Anarhichas lupus (Pisces, Anarhichadidae), at different temperatures. Environmental Biology of Fishes 49: 401-416.
    Rana, K.J. 1990. Influence of incubation temperature on Oreochromis niloticus (L.) eggs and fry. I. Gross embryology, temperature tolerance and rates of embryonic development. Aquaculture 87: 165–181.
    Roo, J.; Socorro, J. & Izquierdo, M.S. 2010. Effect of rearing techniques on skeletal deformities and osteological development in red porgy Pagrus (Linnaeus, 1758) larvae. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 26: 372-376.
    Roubaud, P.; Chaillou, C. & Sjafei, D. 1985. Variations cycliques de la tolérance à un choc thermique froid appliqué au cours de la segmentation de l'embryon de la carpe commune (Cyprinus carpio L.). Canadian Journal of Zoology 63: 657-663.
    Saemi-Komsari, K.; Salehi, M.; Mansouri-Chorehi, M.; Eagderi, S. & Mousavi-Sabet, H. 2018. Developmental morphology and growth patterns of laboratory-reared giraffe cichlid, Nimbochromis venustus Boulenger, 1908. International Journal of Aquatic Biology 6(3): 170-178.
    Sfakianakis, D.G.; Georgakopoulou, E.; Papadakis, I.E.; Divanach, P.; Kentouri, M. & Koumoundouros, G. 2006. Environmental determinants of haemal lordosis in European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758). Aquaculture 254: 54-64.‏
    Sfakianakis, D.G.; Leris, I.; Laggis, A. & Kentouri, M. 2011. The effect of rearing temperature on body shape and meristic characters in zebrafish (Danio rerio) juveniles. Environmental Biology of Fishes 92: 197.
    Thépot, V. & Jerry, D.R. 2015. The effect of temperature on the embryonic development of barramundi, the Australian strain of Lates calcarifer (Bloch) using current hatchery practices. Aquaculture Reports 2: 132-138.
    Wang, Y.L.; Buddington, R.K. & Doroshov, S.I. 1987. Influence of temperature on yolk utilization by the white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus. Journal of Fish Biology 30: 263-271.