Main Article Content


The systematics, morphology, distribution, biology and economic importance of the tench of Iran are described, the species is illustrated, and a bibliography on this fish in Iran is provided. There is a single species, Tinca tinca, found in the Caspian Sea basin.


Biology Morphology Systematics Tinca.

Article Details

How to Cite
COAD, B. W. (2019). Review of the tenches of Iran (Family Tincidae). Iranian Journal of Ichthyology, 6(2), 82–91.


    Abbasi, K.; Moradi, M.; Nikpoor, M.; Zahmatkesh, Y.; Mirzajani, A.; Mousavi-Sabet, H.; Abdoli, A.; Sayadrahim, M.; Mohammadidost, R.; Hoseinjani, A.; Zolfinezhad, K. & Ramzani, M. 2017. Study on distribution of fish species in Anzali Wetland and its rivers. The Fifth Iranian Conference of Ichthyology, Islamic Azad University of Babol, 13-14 December 2017. pp: 642-648. (In Farsi)
    Abbasi, K.; Moradkhah, S. & Sarpanah, A.N. 2007. Identification and distribution of fish fauna in Siahdarvishan River (Anzali Wetland basin). Pajouhesh va Sazandegi 19(1)(74): 27-39. (In Farsi)
    Abbasi, K.; Valipour, A.; Talebi Haghighi, D.; Sarpanah, A. & Nezami, Sh. 1999. Atlas of Iranian Fishes. Gilan Inland Waters. Gilan Fisheries Research Centre, Rasht. 113 p. (In Farsi)
    Abdoli, A. 2000. The Inland Water Fishes of Iran. Iranian Museum of Nature and Wildlife, Tehran. 378 p. (In Farsi)
    Abdoli, A. & Naderi, M. 2009. Biodiversity of Fishes of the Southern Basin of the Caspian Sea. Abzian Scientific Publications, Tehran. 243 p. (In Farsi)
    Abou, M.; Saeedi, A.A.; Rezai, A.; Rezvani, Z. & Mirhashemi, S.F. 2005. Biological control of intermediate host parasites (snails) by the use of Tinca tinca fish. The Fourth International Iran and Russia Conference ’Agriculture and Natural Resources’, September 8-10, Shahr-e Kord, Iran. (In Farsi)
    Ahmadpour, M.; Ahmadpour, M.; Hoseini, S.H.; Ghasempouri, S.M.; Jafari, A.; SinkaKarimi, M.H. & Amouie, H. 2012. A survey of the flora and the fauna of the Fereydunkenar International wetland for better conservation management. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences 2(10): 17-26.
    Altındag, A.; Ozkurt, S.; Yigit, S. & Ahıska, S. 1998. The growth features of tench (Tinca tinca L., 1758) in Kesikköprü Dam Lake. Turkish Journal of Zoology 22(4): 311-318.
    Altindağ, A.; Shaha, S.L. & Yiğit, S. 2002. The growth features of tench (Tinca tinca L., 1758) in Bayındır Dam Lake, Ankara, Turkey. Turkish Journal of Zoology 26(4): 385-391.
    Altindağ, A.; Yiğit, S.; Ahiska, S. & Özkurt, Ş. 2002. The growth features of tench (Tinca tinca L., 1758) in Kesikköprü Dam Lake, Ankara, Turkey. Turkish Journal of Zoology 22(4): 311-318.
    Arai, R. 2011. Fish Karyotypes. A Check List. Springer, Tokyo. 340 p.
    Avlijaš, S.; Ricciardi, A. & Mandrak, N.E. 2018. Eurasian tench (Tinca tinca): the next Great Lakes invader. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 75(2): 169-179.
    Bănărescu, P.M. 1999. The Freshwater Fishes of Europe. Volume 5. Cyprinidae 2. Part I: Rhodeus to Capoeta. AULA-Verlag, Wiebelsheim. 427 p.
    Barzegar, M. & Jalali, B. 2009. Crustacean parasites of fresh and brackish (Caspian Sea) water fishes of Iran. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 11: 161-171.
    Barzegar, M.; Raeisi, M.; Bozorgnia, A. & Jalali, B. 2008. Parasites of eyes of fresh and brackish water fishes in Iran. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research, Shiraz University 9(3)(24): 256-261.
    Benzer, S.Ş.; Gül, A. & Yılmaz, M. 2009. Growth properties of tench (Tinca tinca L., 1758) living in Hirfanlı Reservoir (Kırşehir, Turkey). Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences 8(2): 219-224.
    Benzer, S.Ş., Gül, A. & Yılmaz, M. 2011. Breeding properties of Tinca tinca (L., 1758) living in Kapulukaya Reservoir (Kırıkkale, Turkey). Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences 10(3): 375-382.
    Berg, L.S. 1948-1949. Freshwater fishes of the USSR and adjacent countries. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem (1962-1965). 3 volumes.
    Betancur-R.R.; Wiley, E.O.; Arratia, G.; Acero, A.; Bailly, N.; Miya, M.; Lecointre, G. & Orti, G. 2017. Phylogenetic classification of bony fishes. BMC Evolutionary Biology 17: 162.
    Chen, W-J. & Mayden, R.L. 2009. Molecular systematics of the Cyprinoidea (Teleostei: Cypriniformes), the world's largest clade of freshwater fishes: Further evidence from six nuclear genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 52(2): 544-549.
    Coad, B.W. 1979. Poisonous and venomous freshwater fishes of Iran. Pahlavi Medical Journal 9(4): 388-407.
    Conway, K.W.; Hirt, M.V.; Yang, L.; Mayden, R.L. & Simons, A.M. 2010. Cypriniformes: systematics and paleontology, p. 295-316. In: J.S. Nelson, H.-P. Schultze, M.V.H. (Eds). Wilson, 2010. Origin and Phylogenetic Interrelationships of Teleosts. Verlag Dr. Freidrich Pfeil, München. 480 p.
    Cudmore, B. & Mandrak, N.E. 2011. Biological synopsis of tench (Tinca tinca). Canadian Manuscript Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2948: 20 p.
    Eslami, V., Sattari, M., Imanpour Namin, J. & Ashrafi, S. D. 2014. Concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Cd) in muscle and liver of Perca fluviatilis and Tinca tinca in Anzali Wetland, southwest the Caspian Sea. International Journal of Aquatic Biology 2(6): 319-324.
    Esmaeili, H.R.; Sayyadzadeh, G.; Eagderi, S. & Abbasi, K. 2018. Checklist of freshwater fishes of Iran. FishTaxa 3(3): 1-95.
    Halstead, B. W. 1967-1970. Poisonous and Venomous Marine Animals of the World. Volume Two - Vertebrates. 1070 p., Volume Three - Vertebrates continued. 1006 p. United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
    Holčík, J. & Oláh, J. 1992. Fish, fisheries and water quality in Anzali Lagoon and its watershed. Report prepared for the project - Anzali Lagoon productivity and fish stock investigations. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, FI:UNDP/IRA/88/001 Field Document 2. 109 p.
    IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. International Union for the Conservation of Nature, Gland, Switzerland (
    Karimpour, M. 1998. The ichthyofauna of Anzali Lagoon. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences 7(2): 83-94, 9. (In Farsi)
    Khara, H.; Nezami, Sh.A., Sattari, M.; Mirhasheminasab, S.F. & Mousavi, S. A. 2006a. An investigation on fish infection with Diplostomum spathecum in Amirkalayeh Wetland. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences 14(4): 49-66. (In Farsi)
    Khara, H.; Nezami, Sh.A.; Sattari, M.; Mirhasheminasab, S.F. & Mousavi, S.A. 2006b. An investigation on digestive parasites of fishes in Boojagh Wetland, north Iran. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences 15(2): 9-18. (In Farsi)
    Khara, H.; Sattari, M.; Nezami, Sh.; Mirhasheminasab, S.F.; Mousavi, S.A. & Ahmadnezhead, M. 2011. Parasites of some bonyfish species from Boojagh wetland in the southwest shores of the Caspian Sea. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences 9(1): 47-53.
    Khara, H.; Sattari, M.; Nezami Balochi, Sh.; Mirhasheminasab, S.; Bagherzadeh, D. & Yousefi, M. 2005. Occurrence and intensity of parasites from tench (Tinca tinca L., 1758) in Amirkelayeh wetland of Lahijan. Iranian Journal of Biology 18(3): 180-190. (In Farsi)
    Kiabi, B.H.; Abdoli, A. & Naderi, M. 1999. Status of the fish fauna in the South Caspian Basin of Iran. Zoology in the Middle East 18: 57-65.
    Klinkhardt, M.; Tesche, M. & Greven, H. 1995. Database of Fish Chromosomes. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg. 237 p.
    Lajbner, Z.; Kohlmann, K.; Linhart, O. & Kotlík, P. 2010. Lack of reproductive isolation between the Western and Eastern phylogroups of the tench. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 20: 289-300.
    Lal Shah, S. 2010. Hematological changes in Tinca tinca after exposure to lethal and sublethal doses of mercury, cadmiun and lead. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences 9(3): 434-443.
    Lelek, A. 1987. The Freshwater Fishes of Europe. Volume 9. Threatened Fishes of Europe. AULA-Verlag, Wiesbaden. 343 p.
    Moradi, Y.; Khanipoor, A.A. & Lakzaie, F. 2017. Study of the amount of benzo [a] anthracene in muscle of five species fish in Anzali Wetland. Journal of Aquaculture Development 11(1): 119-125. (In Farsi)
    Moradinasab, A.; Ahmadi Fackjour, H.; Kamrani, E.; Sattari, M.; Ghasemi, A.; Tavakoli, M. & Haghparast, S. 2017. Study on age, growth and sex ratio of tench Tinca tinca (Linnaeus, 1758) in Anzali wetland. Journal of Fisheries Science and Technology 6(1): 119-126. (In Farsi)
    Moradinasab, Gh.; Daliri, M.; Ghorbani, R.; Paighambari, S.Y. & Davoodi, R. 2012. Length-weight and length-length relationships, relative condition factor and Fulton’s condition factor of five cyprinid species in Anzali wetland, southwest of the Caspian Sea. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences 10(1): 25-31.
    Nelson, J.S.; Grande, T.C. & Wilson, M.V.H. 2016. Fishes of the World. Fifth Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken. 707 p.
    Nezami Balouchi, Sh.A.; Khara, H.; Sabkara, J.; Soltanzadeh, M. & Damshenas, Z. 2004. Study of tench (Tinca tinca) diet of Lahijan Amirkelayeh Wetland. Pajouhesh va Sazandegi 16(4)(618): 81-91. (In Farsi)
    Riazi, B. 1996. Siah-Keshim. The Protected Area of Anzali Wetland. Department of the Environment, Tehran. 101 p. (In Farsi)
    Robins, C.R.; Bailey, R.M.; Bond, C.E.; Brooker, J.R.; Lachner, E.A.; Lea, R.N. & Scott, W.B. 1991. World Fishes Important to North Americans Exclusive of Species from the Continental Waters of the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 21. 243 p.
    Sattari, M.; Khara, H.; Nezami, S.; Roohi, J.D. & Shafii, S. 2005. Occurrence and intensity of some nematodes in the bonyfish species of the Caspian Sea and its basin. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 25(4): 166-178.
    Sattari, M.; Khara, B.; Roohi, J.D. & Shafii, S. 2004. Occurrence and intensity of some nematodes in the bony fish species of the Caspian Sea and its basin. Biology in Asia International Conference, Singapore, 7-10 December 2004 (abstract).
    Sayad Borani, M.; Nezami, Sh. & Hassanzadeh Keyabi, B. 2001. Biological study and population dynamics of Carassius auratus gibelio in Anzali Lagoon. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences 10(3): 57-70. (In Farsi)
    Seifzadeh, M.; Valipour, A.; Zareh Gashti, Gh. & Khanpour, A.A. 2018. Study on bioaccumulation of aldrin, diazinon and endrin pesticides in the edible muscle tissues of commercially important fish species of the Anzali Wetland. Iranian Scientific Fisheries Journal 27(3): 1-8. (In Farsi)
    Shikhshabekov, M.M. 1977. Annual cycle of ovaries and testes in the tench, Tinca tinca, in the waters of Dagestan. Journal of Ichthyology 17(4): 685-689.
    Sirang, H. 1997. Artificial propagation of tench (Tinca tinca) to fingerling size in 1994. Iranian Fisheries Scientific Journal 6(2): 43-52, 7-8. (In Farsi)
    Tan, M. & Armbruster, J.W. 2018. Phylogenetic classification of extant genera of fishes of the order Cypriniformes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi). Zootaxa 4476(1): 6-39.
    Vajargah, M.F.; Hossaini, S.A.; Niazie, E.H.N.; Hedayati, A. & Vesaghi, M.J. 2013. Acute toxicity of two pesticides Diazinon and Deltamethrin on tench (Tinca tinca) larve and fingerlings. International Journal of Aquatic Biology 1(3): 138-142.
    Vetlugina, T.A. 1992. The biology of tench, Tinca tinca, in the Volga Delta. Journal of Ichthyology 32(5): 58-64.