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The genotoxicity of Cd, Ni, and Pb was studied on Ceratophyllum demersum L. in three concentrations of 2.5, 5, and 7.5 mg/L. The results showed genotoxic as descending order of Cd > Pb≥ Ni. All concentrations of Cd, Ni, and Pb with the interference of three-elements showed genotoxic effects. Three out of five primers of the RAPD markers showed replication show replication. The total number of bands was 288, polymorphic bands of 11 and monomorphic band of 9 and rare bands of 4 with the polymorphism percentage of 46.36%.  The results of the UPGMA for the twenty-two treatments using the RAPD marker showed two main clusters. It was found that the higher concentrations of the heavy metals have the lower the similarity ratio with the control treatment.


Aquatic plants Genotoxicity RAPD Genetic divergence Heavy metals.

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KHALEEL, H. A., JAWAD, H. J., & ALRUFAYE, Z. T. A. (2022). Genotoxic effect of heavy metals on Ceratophyllum demersum L. using RAPD markers. Iranian Journal of Ichthyology, 9, 46–53. Retrieved from


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