Main Article Content


Cystic echinococcosis (CE) has been defined as an illness that results from the larval Echinococcus granulosus stage. Treating cystic echinococcosis is fundamentally dependent upon using Albendazole that may typically result in negative side effects, which is why, more sufficient options of treatment being necessary. The re-purposing of the drugs has been considered as a beneficial method to advance the drug development. In vitro proto-scolicidal effect of the piperine and curcumin have been assessed in E. granulosus and expression of calmodulin (CaM) genes, both of them were linked to the cellular signaling activities. Based on the results, curcumin and piperine’s have dose-dependent proto-scolicidal effects to achieve the optimal efficacy that the isolated piperine 20mg/k and 2g/k curcumin showed significant anthelminthic activity compared to the standard anthelminthic drug enhancing the bioavailability of curcumin. Calmodulin, as a dynamic Ca2+ sensor, mediates various activities of the cellular signaling from E. granulosus will be possibly involved in a significant biological function.


Piperine Curcumin Albendazole Calmodulin Echinococcus granulosus In vitro.

Article Details

How to Cite
DAKLLAOE, H. A., AL-HILFI, A. A., & ALMANSOUR, N. A. A. (2021). The effect of piperine and curcumin on the calmodulin gene of Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices in vitro. Iranian Journal of Ichthyology, 8, 317–329.


    Bolat, Z.B.; Islek, Z.; Demir, B.N.; Yilmaz, E.N.; Sahin, F. & Ucisik, M.H. 2020. Curcumin-and Piperine-loaded emulsomes as combinational treatment approach enhance the anticancer activity of Curcumin on HCT116 colorectal cancer model. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology 8: 50.
    Dei Cas, M. & Ghidoni, R. 2019. Dietary curcumin: correlation between bioavailability and health potential. Nutrients 11: 2147.
    Hamady Obeid, A,A.; Omran, A.M.; Alyasari, H.F. & Al-Taei, M.H. 2019. The effect of the activity of Qurecus persica oak plant secondary compound extracts on the viability of protoscolices for Echinococcus granulosus parasite in vitro. Plant Archives 19: 1085-1091.
    Harborne, J. 1984. Methods of Plant Analysis: Phytochemical methods. Springer. 288 p.
    Hasimoto, F.K.; Francisqueti-Ferron, F.V.; Costa, M.R.; De Souza, M.B.; Aun, A.G.; Nogueira, F.R.; Alves, P.H.R.; Lima, G.P.P.; Garcia, J.L. & De Almeida Silva, C.C.V. 2020. Therapeutic effect of Curcuma longa L. on the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) physiopathology due fructose consumption. Nurture 45: 1-9.
    Iqbal, E.; Salim, K.A. & Lim, L.B. 2015. Phytochemical screening, total phenolics and antioxidant activities of bark and leaf extracts of Goniothalamus velutinus (Airy Shaw) from Brunei Darussalam. Journal of King Saud University-Science 27: 224-232.
    Kao, L. & Green, C.E. 2008. Analysis of variance: is there a difference in means and what does it mean? Journal of Surgical Research 144: 158-170.
    Livak, K.J. & Schmittgen, T. D. 2001. Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2− ΔΔCT method. Methods 25: 402-408.
    Mehta, S.; Aye-Han, N.; Ganesan, A.; Oldach, L.; Gorshkov, K. & Zhang, J. 2014. Calmodulin-controlled spatial decoding of oscillatory Ca2+ signals by calcineurin. Elife 3: e03765.
    Mohammed, A.A. 2019. Prevalence and Molecular Study of Cysticercus tenuicollis among Sheep in Sulaimani Slaughterhouse. Council of College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sulaimani.
    Mousavi, S.M.; Afgar, A.; Mohammadi, M.A.; Mortezaei, S.; Sadeghi, B. & Harandi, M.F. 2019. Calmodulin-specific small interfering RNA induces consistent expression suppression and morphological changes in Echinococcus granulosus. Scientific Reports 9: 1-9.
    Negi, V. 2017. Innovating Possible Methods to Enhance Bioavailability of Curcumin Using Chemical Analogies and Creative Synthesis, Lamar University-Beaumont.
    Prashant, A.; Rangaswamy, C.; Yadav, A.K.; Reddy, V.; Sowmya, M. & Madhunapantula, S. 2017. In vitro anticancer activity of ethanolic extracts of Piper nigrum against colorectal carcinoma cell lines. International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research 7: 67.
    Qasim, M.T. & Al-Mayali, H.K. 2019, July. The immunological and protective role of baicalin in male rats treated with chemotherapy (Gemcitabine). Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1234(1): 012065
    Qasim, M.T. & Al-Mayali, H.K. 2019. Investigate the relation between Baicalin effect and gene expression of LH, FSH, Testosterone in male rats treated with Gemcitabine drug. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 12(9): 4135-4141.
    Sarkar, A.; De, R. & Mukhopadhyay, A.K. 2016. Curcumin as a potential therapeutic candidate for Helicobacter pylori associated diseases. World Journal of Gastroenterology 22: 2736.
    Shabgah, A.G.; Qasim, M.T.; Mostafavi, S.M.; Zekiy, A.O.; Ezzatifar, F.; Ahmadi, M.; Haftcheshmeh, S.M. & Navashenaq, J.G. 2021. CXC chemokine ligand 16: a Swiss army knife chemokine in cancer. Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine 23.
    Shiee, M.R.; Kia, E.B.; Zahabiun, F.; Naderi, M.; Motevaseli, E.; Nekoeian, S.; Harandi, M.F. & Dehpour, A.R. 2021. In vitro effects of tropisetron and granisetron against Echinococcus granulosus (ss) protoscoleces by involvement of calcineurin and calmodulin. Parasites and Vectors 14: 1-12.
    Shoba, G.; Joy, D.; Joseph, T.; Majeed, M.; Rajendran, R. & Srinivas, P.S.S.R. 1998. Influence of piperine on the pharmacokinetics of curcumin in animals and human volunteers. Planta Medica 64(04): 353-356.
    Silverstein, R.M.B. & Morrill, T.C. 1991. Spectrometric identification of organic compounds. . 5th ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. USA. 419 p.
    Snyder, D.E.; Wiseman, S.; Crawley, E.; Wallace, K.; Bowman, D. & Reinemeyer, C.R. 2021. Effectiveness of a novel orally administered combination drug product containing milbemycin oxime and lotilaner (Credelio® Plus) for the treatment of larval and immature adult stages of Ancylostoma caninum in experimentally infected dogs. Parasites & Vectors 14: 1-8.
    Tahmasebi, S.; Qasim, M.T.; Krivenkova, M.V.; Zekiy, A.O.; Thangavelu, L.; Aravindhan, S.; Izadi, M.; JadidiNiaragh, F.; Ghaebi, M.; Aslani, S. & AghebatMaleki, L. 2021. The effects of oxygen–ozone therapy on regulatory T‐cell responses in multiple sclerosis patients. Cell Biology International 45(7): 1498-1509.
    Tai, L.; Li, B.; Nie, X.; Zhang, P.; Hu, C.; Zhang, L.; Liu, W.; Li, W. & Chen, K. 2019. Calmodulin is the fundamental regulator of NADK-mediated NAD signaling in plants. Frontiers in Plant Science 10: 681.
    Thomas, C.M. & Timson, D.J. 2018. Calmodulins from Schistosoma mansoni: Biochemical analysis and interaction with IQ-motifs from voltage-gated calcium channels. Cell Calcium 74: 1-13.
    Varcasia, A.; Canu, S.; Kogkos, A.; Pipia, A.P.; Scala, A.; Garippa, G. & Seimenis, A. 2007. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus in sheep and goats of Peloponnesus, Greece. Parasitology Research 101: 1135-1139.
    Wang, N.; Zhong, X.; Song, X.; Gu, X.; Lai, W.; Xie, Y.; Peng, X. & Yang, G. 2017. Molecular and biochemical characterization of calmodulin from Echinococcus granulosus. Parasites and Vectors 10: 1-9.