Review of the sticklebacks and pipefishes of Iran (Families Gasterosteidae and Syngnathidae)

Brian W COAD

Abstract

The systematics, morphology, distribution, biology, economic importance and conservation of the sticklebacks and pipefishes of Iran are described, the species are illustrated, and a bibliography on these fishes is provided. There are two sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus, an exotic, and Pungitius platygaster, a native) and one native pipefish (Syngnathus caspius), the natives found in the Caspian Sea basin and the exotic in that basin and adjacent basins. The family Gasterosteidae is characterised by a compressed, fusiform body, teeth in bands in each jaw but none on the tongue or palate, a protractile mouth, 3 branchiostegal rays, no postcleithrum, no scales but a series of plates along the flank variably developed, sometimes absent, 2 or more (usually 3-16) isolated spines in front of a soft dorsal fin (usually 6-14 rays), and a pelvic fin with a strong spine and only 0-2 soft rays. The body of pipefishes of the family Syngnathidae is characteristic, being very thin and very elongated, and enclosed in bony rings as a form of armour. The body is divided into a trunk and a tail, the tail being prehensile in seahorses. The first trunk ring has the pectoral fin base and the last has the anus in it. The snout is elongated with a small toothless mouth at the tip. Gills are tufted and the gill opening is small. There are 1-3 branchiostegal rays. There is a single dorsal fin without spines, the pelvic fins are absent and the pectoral, anal and caudal fins may be absent too. The caudal is always small when present. The anal fin is always small with only 2-6 rays. Those without a caudal fin may have the tail prehensile, able to grasp and hold onto objects.

Keywords

Biology, Morphology, Gasterosteus, Pungitius, Syngnathus.

Full Text:

PDF

References

Abbasi, K.; Valipour, A.; Talebi Haghighi, D.; Sarpanah, A. & Nezami, S. 1999. Atlas of Iranian Fishes. Gilan Inland Waters. Gilan Fisheries Research Centre, Rasht. 113p. (In Farsi)

Abdoli, A. 1993a. Threespine stickleback in the Caspian Sea. Abzeeyan 3(10&11): 45. In Farsi.

Abdoli, A. 1993b. Three-spined stickleback in southern basins of the Caspian Sea. Abzeeyan 4(5): 10-13, III. (In Farsi)

Abdoli, A. 2000. The Inland Water Fishes of Iran. Iranian Museum of Nature & Wildlife, Tehran, Iran. 378 pp. (In Farsi)

Abdoli, A. & Naderi, M. 2009. Biodiversity of Fishes of the Southern Basin of the Caspian Sea. Abzian Scientific Publications, Tehran. 243 pp. (In Farsi)

Banagar, G.R.; Kiabi, B.H.; Homayoonnezhad, I.; Piri, I. & Amirian, P. 2008. Biodiversity of fish species in Haraz River (an ecological approach). World Applied Sciences Journal 5(1): 5-11.

Banagar, G.R.; Karami, M.; Hasanzadeh Kiabi, B. & Ghasempouri, S.M. 2009. Distribution and biodiversity of fish species in Haraz River in Mazandaran Province. Environmental Sciences 6(2): 21-31.

Bănărescu, P.M. & Paepke, H.J. 2002. The Freshwater Fishes of Europe. Vol. 5/III. Cyprinidae 2. Part III: Carassius to Cyprinus. Gasterosteidae. AULA-Verlag, Wiebelsheim. 305 p.

Berg, L.S. 1948-1949. Freshwater fishes of the USSR and adjacent countries. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem (1962-1965). Vol. I-III.

Campolmi, M.; Franzoi, P. & Mazzola, V. 1994. Observations on pipefhises (sic) (Syngnathidae) biology in the Stagnone Lagoon (Nort-west (sic) Sicily). VIII Congress Societas Europaea Ichthyologorum, Oviedo, Spain, September 26 to October 2, 1994, pp. 108-109 (abstract).

Campolmi, M.; Franzoi, P. & Mazzola, A. 1996. Observations on pipefish (Syngnathidae) biology in the Stagnone lagoon (west Sicily). Publicaciones Especiales Instituto Español de Oceanografía 21: 205-209.

Coad, B.W. 1981. A bibliography of the sticklebacks (Gasterosteidae: Osteichthyes). Syllogeus, Ottawa 35: 1-142.

Coad, B.W. 1987. Zoogeography of the Freshwater Fishes of Iran, In: Krupp, F.; Schneider, W. & Kinzelbach, R. (eds.), Proceedings of the Symposium on the Fauna and Zoogeography of the Middle East, Mainz, 1985. Beihefte zum Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients, Reihe A (Naturwissenschaften), 28, Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, Wiesbaden, 338pp., pp. 213-228.

Coad, B.W. 1994. Exotic and transplanted fishes in Southwest Asia. Science Forum Scientifique, Canadian Museum of Nature / Musée canadien de la nature, Ottawa, November 21 Novembre 1994, p. 36 (abstract).

Coad, B.W. 1996. Exotic and transplanted fishes in Southwest Asia. Publicaciones Especiales Instituto Español de Oceanografía 21: 81-106.

Coad, B.W. 1998. Systematic biodiversity in the freshwater fishes of Iran. Italian Journal of Zoology, 65 (Supplement): 101-108. (Proceedings of the Ninth Congress of European Ichthyologists (CEI-9) "Fish Biodiversity" organised in Naples at the University Federico II and held in Trieste - Italy, 24-30 August 1997).

Coad, B.W. 2014. Review of the Freshwater Catfishes of Iran (Order Siluriformes). Iranian Journal of Ichthyology 1(4): 218-257.

Coad, B.W. 2015a. Review of the Spiny Eels of Iran (Family Mastacembelidae). Iranian Journal of Ichthyology 2(1): 1-12.

Coad, B.W. 2015b. Review of the Milkfishes of Iran (Family Chanidae). Iranian Journal of Ichthyology 2(2): 65-70.

Coad, B. W. & Abdoli, A. 1993. Exotic fish species in the fresh waters of Iran. Zoology in the Middle East 9: 65-80.

Coad, B. W. & Abdoli, A. 1996. Biodiversity of Iranian freshwater fishes. Abzeeyan 7(1): 4-10, IV. (In Farsi)

Derzhavin, A.N. 1934. Presnovodnye ryby yuzhnogo poberezh'ya Kaspiya. Vstuplenie [Freshwater fishes of the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. Introduction]. Trudy Azerbaidzhanskogo Otdeleniya Zakavkazskogo Filiala Akademii Nauk SSSR, Sektor Zoologii, Baku 7: 91-126.

Eschmeyer, W.N.; Ferraris, C.J.; Hoang, M.D. & Long, D. J. 1996. A Catalog of the Species of Fishes. Preliminary version (Sept. 1996). http://www. calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/species.

Eschmeyer, W.N. & Fong, J.D. 2011. Pisces. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (ed.). Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148: 26-38.

Eschmeyer, W.N. & Fong, J.D. 2015. Species by family/subfamily. (http://researcharchive.Calacade my.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/SpeciesByFamily.asp). Electronic version accessed 21. 08. 2015

Esmaeili, H.R.; Coad, B.W.; Gholamifard, A.; Nazari, N. & Teimory, A. 2010. Annotated checklist of the freshwater fishes of Iran. Zoosystematica Rossica 19(2): 361-386.

Esmaeili, H.R.; Coad, B.W.; Mehraban, H.R.; Masoudi, M.; Khaefi, R.; Abbasi, K.; Mostafavi, H. & Vatandsoust, S. 2014. An updated checklist of fishes of the Caspian Sea basin of Iran with a note on their zoogeography. Iranian Journal of Ichthyology 1(3): 152-184.

Esmaeili, H.R. & Ebrahimi, M. 2006. Length-weight relationships of some freshwater fishes of Iran. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 22(4): 328-329.

Esmaeili, H.R.; Hagmoradlo, A. & Niksirat, H. 2003. Exotic fishes of Iran with special reference to Gasterosteus aculeatus. World Aquaculture 2003, 20-23 May, Salvador, Brazil (title).

Esmaeili, H.R.; Teimori, A.; Owfi, F.; Abbasi, K. & Coad, B.W. 2014. Alien and invasive freshwater fish species in Iran: Diversity, environmental impacts and management. Iranian Journal of Ichthyology 1(2): 61-72.

Fortunatova, K.P. 1961. Availability of sticklebacks as food for the predacious fishes of the Volga delta. Fisheries Research Board of Canada Translation Series 331: 1-18.

Franzoi, P.; Maccagnani, R.; Rossi, R. & Ceccherelli, V. U. 1993. Life cycles and feeding habits of Syngnathus taenionotus and S. abaster (Pisces, Syngnathidae) in a brackish bay of the Po River Delta (Adriatic Sea). Marine Ecology Progress Series 97(1): 71-81.

Heydarnejad, M.S. 2009. Length-weight relationships for six freshwater fish species in Iran. Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology 27(1): 61-62.

Holčík, J. & Oláh, J. 1992. Fish, fisheries and water quality in Anzali Lagoon and its watershed. Report prepared for the project - Anzali Lagoon productivity and fish stock investigations. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, FI:UNDP/IRA/88/001 Field Document 2, 109p.

Hosseinifard, S.M.; Youssefi, M.R.; Hoseini, S.H. & Mobedi, I. 2010. First report of the acanthocephalan, Bolbosoma caenoforme (Heitz, 1920), in the Gasterosteus aculeatus fish from north of Iran. World Journal of Zoology 5(4): 264-265.

IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. International Union for the Conservation of Nature, Gland, Switzerland (http://www.iucnredlist.org/).

Jolodar, M.N. & Abdoli, A. 2004. Fish Species Atlas of South Caspian Sea Basin (Iranian Waters). Iranian Fisheries Research Organization, Teheran.110p. (In Farsi and English)

Karimpour, M. 1998. The ichthyofauna of Anzali Lagoon. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences 7(2): 83-94. (In Farsi)

Keivany, Y. 1996. Taxonomic revision of the genus Pungitius with emphasis on P. hellenicus. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Alberta, Edmonton. 98p.

Keivany, Y. & Nelson, J.S. 1998. Comparative osteology of the Greek ninespine stickleback, Pungitius hellenicus (Teleostei, Gasterosteidae). Journal of Ichthyology 38(6): 430-440.

Keivany, Y. & Nelson, J.S. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships of sticklebacks (Gasterosteidae), with emphasis on ninespine sticklebacks (Pungitius spp.). Behaviour 141(11-12): 1485-1497.

Keivany, Y.; Nelson, J.S. & Economidis, P.S. 1997. Validity of Pungitius hellenicus Stephanidis, 1971 (Teleostei, Gasterosteidae), a stickleback fish from Greece. Copeia 1997(3): 558-564.

Khara, H.; Nezami, S. & Sakari, M. 2004. Fish diversity in Boojagh marine and land National Park in the southern part of the Caspian Sea of Iran. Biology in Asia International Conference, Singapore, 7-10 December 2004 (abstract).

Khara, H. & Nezami Baluchie, S. 2005. Studying fish biodiversity and abundance in Boujagh Wetland of Kiashar, south-western Caspian Sea. Iranian Scientific Fisheries Journal 13(4): 41-54. In Farsi.

Kiabi, B.H.; Abdoli, A. & Naderi, M. 1999. Status of the fish fauna in the South Caspian Basin of Iran. Zoology in the Middle East 18: 57-65.

Kiryukhina, N.A. 2013. Molecular and genetic variability in populations of Syngnathus nigrolineatus Eichwald 1831 and the ways of settling into the Volga River basins on the basis of mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis. Rossiiskii Zhurnal Biologicheskikh Invazii 2013(3): 59-68. (In Russian)

Klinkhardt, M.; Tesche, M. & Greven, H. 1995. Database of Fish Chromosomes. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg. 237p.

Kottelat, M. 1997. European freshwater fishes. An heuristic checklist of the freshwater fishes of Europe (exclusive of former USSR), with an introduction for non-systematists and comments on nomenclature and conservation. Biologia Bratislava 52 (Supplement 5): 1-271.

Krupp, F. & Coad, B.W. 1985. Notes on a population of the threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, from Syria. Senckenbergiana Biologica 66(1/3): 35-39.

Krylov, V.I. 1984. An estimate of the effect of the Caspian seal (Pusa caspica) on fish populations. Canadian Translation of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 5066: 15p.

Lelek, A. 1987. The Freshwater Fishes of Europe. Volume 9. Threatened Fishes of Europe. AULA-Verlag, Wiesbaden. 343p.

Lueken, W. 1967. Süßwasserfische der Türkei 5. Teil Syngnathidae. Mitteilungen aus dem hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut 64: 127-146.

Mostafavi, H. 2007. Fish biodiversity in Talar River, Mazandaran Province. Journal of Environmental Studies 32(40): 127-135. (In Farsi)

Mostafavi, H. & Abdoli, A. 2003. A study of fish species diversity in Talar River in Mazandaran. Environmental Sciences 1(1): 20-29. In Farsi.

Münzing, J. 1969. Variabilität, Verbreitung und Systematik der Arten und Unterarten in der Gattung Pungitius Coste, 1848 (Pisces, Gasterosteidae). Zeitschrift für zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung 7: 208-233.

Naderi, J.M. & Abdoli, A. 2004. Fish Species Atlas of South Caspian Sea Basin (Iranian Waters). Iranian Fisheries Research Organization, Tehran. 80+10+12pp. (In Farsi and English)

Naseka, A.M. & Bogutskaya, N.G. 2009. Fishes of the Caspian Sea: zoogeography and updated check-list. Zoosystematica Rossica 18(2): 295–317.

Nazari, K. 2002. Identification of different fish species in Kargan-Rood River on Guilan Province, 1994. Iranian Scientific Fisheries Journal 11(1): 73-84. (In Farsi)

Nejatsanatee, A.R. 1994. Ameerkalaye Lagoon in Lahijan, Abzeeyan 5(1&2): 2-4. In Farsi.

Nelson, J.S. 2006. Fishes of the World. Fourth Edition. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 601p.

Nezami, S.A. & Khara, H. 2004. Species composition and abundance of fishes in Amirkelayeh Wetland. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences 12(4): 193-206. (In Farsi)

Niksirat, H.; Hatef, A. & Abdoli, A. 2010. Life cycle and feeding habits of the threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus (Linnaeus, 1758): an alien species in the southeast Caspian Sea. International Aquatic Research 2: 97-104.

Niksirat, H.; Hatef, A.; Nikoo, M.; Hajimoradloo, A. & Ghorbani, R. 2006. Infection of three- spined stickleback Gasterosteus acuoleatus (L.) with Corynosoma strumosum in Gomishan Lagoon. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences 15(2): 155-160. (In Farsi)

Paateemaar, R. 1993. Pipefish of the Caspian Sea. Abzeeyan 4(8): 20-23. (In Farsi)

Paepke, H-J. 1983. Die Stichling Gasterosteidae. A. Ziemsen Verlag, Wittenberg Lutherstadt. 144p.

Patimar, R.; Najafabadi, M.H. & Souraki, M.G. 2010. Life history features of the nonindigenous three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus, 1758) in the Gomishan wetland (southeast Caspian Sea, Iran). Turkish Journal of Zoology 34(4): 461-470.

Sal'nikov, V.B. 1995. Possible changes in the composition of the ichthyofauna after completion of the Karakum Canal in Turkmenistan. Journal of Ichthyology 35(7): 108-121.

Shakirova, F.M. & Sukhanova, A.I. 1994. Iktiofauna Turkmenistana (sostav i rasprostranenie) [Ichthyofauna of Turkmenistan (composition and distribution)]. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Turkmenistana, Seriya Biologicheskikh Nauk 3(1993): 35-45.

Silva, K.; Monteiro, N.M.; Vieira, M.N. & Almada, V.C. 2006. Reproductive behaviour of the black-striped pipefish Syngnathus abaster (Pisces; Syngnathidae). Journal of Fish Biology 69(6): 1860-1869.

Tomasini, J.A., Quignard, J.P., Capapé, C. & Bouchereau, J.L. 1991. Facteurs du succès reproductif de Syngnathus abaster Risso, 1826 (Pisces, Teleostei, Syngnathidae) en milieu lagunaire méditerranéen (lagune de Mauguio, France). Acta Oecologica 12(3): 331-355.

Whitehead, P.J.P.; Bauchot, M.L.; Hureau, J.C.; Nielsen, J. & Tortonese, E. (eds.). 1984-1986. Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. I: 1-510; Vol. II: 511-1007; Vol. III: 1008-1473.

Wootton, R.J. 1976. The Biology of the Sticklebacks. Academic Press, London. 387p.

Wootton, R.J. 1984. A Functional Biology of Sticklebacks. University of California Press, Berkeley, USA. 265p.

Zenkevitch, L. 1963. Biology of the Seas of the U.S.S.R. George Allen & Unwin, London. 956p.

Ziuganov, V.V. 1991. Fauna SSSR. Ryby. Tom V, Vypusk 1. Semeistvo Kolyushkovykh (Gasterosteidae) Mirovoi Fauny [Fauna of the U.S.S.R. Fishes. Vol. V, No. 1. The Family Gasterosteidae of the World Fish Fauna]. Nauka, Leningrad. 261p.

Ziuganov, V.V. & Gomeluk, V.Y. 1985. Hybridization of two forms of ninespine stickleback, Pungitius pungitius and P. platygaster, under experimental conditions and an attempt to predict the consequences of their contact in nature. Environmental Biology of Fishes 13(4): 241-251.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.