Effects of diet containing wood betony, Stachys lavandulifolia extract on growth, gut microbiota and intestinal structure of the African cichlid, Sciaenochromis fryeri

Mahsa MOHAMMADI, Fatemeh PAYKAN HEYRATI, Salar DORAFSHAN

Abstract

Four isocaloric diets were formulated to contain 0 (control), 2, 4 and 8% of wood betony (WB), Stachys lavandulifolia hydroalcoholic extract in a 56-days feeding trial on African cichlid, Sciaenochromis fryeri. The regression analysis of growth performance indices indicated that the best performance parameters including specific growth rate and weight gain were obtained in 3.9% WB in the diet. Total bacterial counts in the fish gut were reduced significantly from 20.50±4.22 (×103 Colony-Forming Unit; cfu g-1) in the control to 9.30±0.71, 3.60±0.98 and 3.10±0.80 (×103 cfu g-1)  group of fish fed on 2, 4 and 8% WB, respectively (P<0.05). No significant change was observed in the number of lactic acid bacteria and it was in the range of 0.80-1.30 (×103 cfu g-1). Evaluation of the mid-intestine morphology of fish fed on the graded levels of WB was done. Although fold and enterocyte heights were significantly increased in the fish fed on WB-enriched food in comparison to the control, the intestine diameters and microvilli lengths were not affected. This study indicated that hydroethanolic extract of WB can be considered as a supplement in fish diet to improve growth and some physiological aspects of the cichlid.

Keywords

Medicinal plant, Ornamental fish, Total count bacteria, Lactic acid bacteria.

Full Text:

PDF

References

Bahrami Babaheydari, S.; Paykan Heyrati, F. & Dorafshan, S. 2013. Chemical components of the hydroalcoholic extract of Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl from Isfahan province In The Second International Conferences on Agriculture and Natural Resources. Razi University, Kermanshah. pp. 446-449.

Bahrami Babaheydari, S.; Dorafshan, S.; Paykan Heyrati, F. & Mahboobi Soofiani, N. 2014a. Effect of wood betony (Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl) extract on some serum biochemical changes and acute stress response in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Iranian Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 1: 17-26.

Bahrami Babaheydari, S.; Dorafshan, S.; Paykan Heyrati, F.; Mahboobi Soofiani, N. & Vahabi, M. 2014b. The physiological changes, growth performance and whole body composition of common carp, Cyprinus carpio fed on diet containing wood betony, Stachys lavandulifolia extract. Journal of Agricultural Sceince and Technology 16: 1565-1574.

Bahrami Babaheydari, S.; Paykan Heyrati, F.; Akhlaghi, M. & Dorafshan, S. 2014c. The dietary wood betony, Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl extract as a growth promoter and immune enhancer in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research 15: 359-364.

Bahrami Babaheydari, S.; Paykan Heyrati, F.; Dorafshan, S.; Mahboobi Soofiani, N. & Vahabi, M. 2015. Effect of dietary wood betony, Stachys lavandulifolia extract on growth performance, haematological and biochemical parameters of Common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences 14: 805-817.

Bulfon, C.; Volpatti, D. & Galeotti, M. 2015. Current research on the use of plant‐derived products in farmed fish. Aquaculture Research 46: 513-551.

Cahill, M.M. 1990. Bacterial flora of fishes: a review. Microbial Ecology 19: 21-41.

Chakraborty, S.B. & Hancz, C. 2011. Application of phytochemicals as immunostimulant, antipathogenic and antistress agents in finfish culture. Review in Aquaculture 3: 103-119.

Cheng, Z.; Buentello, A. & Gatlin III, D.M. 2011. Dietary nucleotides influence immune responses and intestinal morphology of red drum Sciaenops ocellatus. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 30: 143-147.

Citarasu, T. 2010. Herbal biomedicines: a new opportunity for aquaculture industry. Aquaculture International 18: 403-414.

Egerton, S.; Culloty, S.; Whooley, J.; Stanton, C. & Paul Ross, R. 2018. The gut microbiota of marine fish. Frontiers in Microbiology 9: 1-18.

Galina, J.; Yin, G.; Ardo, L. & Jeney, Z. 2009. The use of immunostimulating herbs in fish. An overview of research. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 35: 669-676.

Gatesoupe, F.-J. 2007. Updating the importance of lactic acid bacteria in fish farming: natural occurrence and probiotic treatments. Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology 14: 107-114.

Ghasemi Pirbalouti, A.; Ghasemi, M.R.; Momtaz, H.; Golparvar, A.R.; Hamedi, B. & Shahgholian, L. 2010. The effect of some of the Iranian medicinal plants on Brucella abortus on In-vitro and In-vivo. Journal of Herbal Drugs 1: 21-29.

Hernández, A.; García, B.G.; Caballero, M. & Hernández, M. 2015. Preliminary insights into the incorporation of rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) in fish feed: influence on performance and physiology of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 41: 1065-1074.

Javidnia, K.; Mojab, F. & Mojahedi, S. 2010. Chemical constituents of the essential oil of Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl from Iran. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 12: 61-63.

Jobling, M. 2012. National Research Council (NRC): Nutrient requirements of fish and shrimp. Springer Science & Business Media.

Konings, A. 1993. A revision of the genus Sciaenochromis Eccles & Trewavas, 1989 (Pisces, Cichlidae). The Cichlids Yearbook, 3: 28-36.

Mahadkar, S.; Valvi, S. & Rathod, V. 2012. Screening of anti-nutritional factors from some wild edible plants. Journal of Natural Production of Plant Resources 2: 251-255.

Moradian, AM.; Dorafshan S, Paykan Heyrati F, Ebrahimi E. 2018. Effects of dietary bovine lactoferrin on growth, haemato-biochemical parameters, immune functions and tolerance to air exposure stress in the African cichlid Sciaenochromis fryeri. Aquaculture Nutrition 24: 392-399.

Nollevaux, M.C.; Guiot, Y.; Horsmans, Y.; Leclercq, I.; Rahier, J.; Geubel, A. & Sempoux, C. 2006. Hypervitaminosis A‐induced liver fibrosis: stellate cell activation and daily dose consumption. Liver International 26: 182-186.

Ody, P. 1993. The complete Medicinal Herbal. London: Dorling Kindersley. 192 p.

Post, G.W. 1983. Textbook of Fish Health, TFH Publications Inc.

Rahimi, S.; Teymori Zadeh, Z.; Torshizi, K.; Omidbaigi, R. & Rokni, H. 2011. Effect of the three herbal extracts on growth performance, immune system, blood factors and intestinal selected bacterial population in broiler chickens. Journal of Agricultural Science & Technology 13: 527-539.

Rawling, M.D.; Merrifield, D.L. & Davies, S.J. 2009. Preliminary assessment of dietary supplementation of Sangrovit® on red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) growth performance and health. Aquaculture 294: 118-122.

Rechinger, K.H. & Hedge, I.C. 1982. Flora Iranica. Akademisch Druck-und Verlagsanstalt, Graz, Austria 150: 360-361.

Rezazadeh, S.; Zaringhalam, J.; Manaheji, H. & Kebryaeezadeh, A. 2009. Anti-inflammatory and antihyperalgesic activities of Stachys athorecalyx extracts on CFA-induced inflammation. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 3: 368-376.

Ringø, E. & Gatesoupe, F.-J. 1998. Lactic acid bacteria in fish: a review. Aquaculture 160: 177-203.

Sakai, M. 1999. Current research status of fish immunostimulants. Aquaculture 172: 63-92.

Sarvi Moghanlou, K.; Nasr Isfahani, E.; Dorafshan S.; Tukmechi, A. & Aramli, M.S. 2018. Effects of dietary supplementation with Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl extract on growth performance, hemato-biochemical and innate immunity parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Animal Feed Science and Technology 237:98-105.

Soeta, S.; Mori, R.; Kodaka, T.; Naito, Y. & Taniguchi, K. 1999. Immunohistochemical observations on the initial disorders of the epiphyseal growth plate in rats induced by high dose of vitamin A. Journal of Veterinary Medical Sciences 61: 233-238.

Turker, H.; Yıldırım, A.B. & Karakaş, F.P. 2009. Sensitivity of bacteria isolated from fish to some medicinal plants.Turkish Journal of Fisheries & Aquaculture Sciences 9: 181-186.

Van Hai, N. 2015. The use of medicinal plants as immunostimulants in aquaculture: A review. Aquaculture 446: 88-96.

Velmurugan, S. & Citarasu, T. 2010. Effect of herbal antibacterial extracts on the gut floral changes in Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus. Romanian Biotechnology Letters 15: 5709-5717.

Virgili, F. & Marino, M. 2008. Regulation of cellular signals from nutritional molecules: a specific role for phytochemicals, beyond antioxidant activity. Free Radical Biological Medicine 45: 1205-1216.

Vundać, V.B.; Brantner, A.H. & Plazibat, M. 2007. Content of polyphenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of some Stachys taxa. Food Chemistry 104: 1277-1281.

Xie, J.; Liu, B.; Zhou, Q.; Su, Y.; He, Y.; Pan, L.; Ge, X. & Xu, P. 2008. Effects of anthraquinone extract from rhubarb Rheum officinale Bail on the crowding stress response and growth of common carp Cyprinus carpio var. Jian. Aquaculture 281: 5-11.

Yaghobi, M.; Paykan Heyrati, F.; Akhlaghi, M.; Dorafshan, S. & Mahmoudi, N. 2014. Intestinal microbiota of striped catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Sauvage, 1878) fed on dietary nucleotide. Iranian Journal of Ichthyology 1(4): 274-280.

Yaghobi, M.; Dorafshan, S.; Akhlaghi, M.; Paykan Heyrati, F. & Mahmoudi, N. 2015. Immune responses and intestinal morphology of striped catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Sauvage, 1878), fed dietary nucleotides. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 31: 83-87.

Yin, G.; Jeney, G.; Racz, T.; Xu, P.; Jun, X. & Jeney, Z. 2006. Effect of two Chinese herbs (Astragalus radix and Scutellaria radix) on non-specific immune response of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Aquaculture 253: 39-47.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.