Evaluation of different water exchange regimes for optimizing growth and production of koi carp, Cyprinus carpio in tanks

Prithwiraj JHA

Abstract

The effect of different water exchange regimes on the growth and survival of koi carp, Cyprinus carpio in tanks provided with the supply of exogenous zooplankton as the food was investigated. Fish larvae (0.15±0.012g) were stocked in outdoor concrete tanks at 0.5 fish/l (T1 and T2); 1.0 fish/l (T3 and T4); and 1.5 fish/l (T5 and T6) and cultured for three months. The water exchange rate was 10% once daily in T1, T3 and T5 and twice daily in T2, T4 and T6. Values of dissolved oxygen were highest in T2, followed by T4, T1, T6, T3 and T5. The T5 treatment showed the highest concentrations of conductivity, NH4-N, NO2-N, NO3-N, PO4-P, and bicarbonate alkalinity, which were significantly higher than the other treatments. The final body weight of C. carpio ranged from 4.01 to 8.22g in the different treatments. At harvest, maximum weight gain was achieved in the T2, followed by T4, T1, T6, T3 and T5 in descending order. There was a significant difference in the survival of koi carp among the treatments, ranging from 56.43% (T5) to 96.32% (T2). The percentage and number of fish exceeding a total weight of 5g were estimated from the size-frequency distribution at the end of the study and was significantly higher in T6 (P<0.05) than other treatments. From the present study, a daily water exchange of 20% could support higher stocking densities of koi carp in tanks and result in high productivity, measured in terms of the number of marketable fish.

Keywords

Aquaculture management, Ornamental carp, Fish production, Water quality.

Full Text:

PDF

References

Ajiboye, A.O.; Awogbade, A.A. & Babalola, O.A. 2015. Effects of water exchange on water quality parameters, nutrient utilization and growth of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). International Journal of Livestock Production 6: 57-60.

APHA. 1998. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 20th ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, USA.

Arillo, A.; Margiocco, C.; Melodia, F.; Mensi, P. & Schenone, G. 1981. Ammonia toxicity mechanism in fish: studies on rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Rich.). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 5: 316-328.

Asano, L.; Ako, H.; Shimizu, E. & Tamaru, C.S. 2003. Limited water exchange production systems for freshwater ornamental fish. Aquaculture Research 34: 937-941.

Boyd, C.E. 1982. Water Quality Management in Pond Fish Culture. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Cameron, J.N. 1971. Methaemoglobin in erythrocytes of rainbow trout. Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology A 40: 743-749.

Chakrabarti, R. & Jana, B.B. 1998. Effects on growth and water quality of feeding exogenous plankton compared to use of manure in the culture of Mrigal, Cirrhinus mrigala, and Rohu, Labeo rohita fry in tanks. Journal of Applied Aquaculture 8: 87-95.

Chamberlain, G.W. 1987. Intensification reasonable from economic point of view. Coastal Aquaculture 4: 1-7.

Coban, M.Z. & Sen, D. 2011. Examination of liver and muscle glycogen and blood glucose levels of Capoeta umbla (Heckel, 1843) living in Hazar Lake and Keban Dam Lake (Elazig, Turkey). African Journal of Biotechnology 10: 10271-10279.

Colt, J. 2006. Water quality requirements for reuse systems. Aquaculture Engineering 34: 143-156.

Colt, J.E. & Tomasso J.R. 2001. Hatchery water supply and treatment. In: G.A. Wedemeyer (Ed.), Fish Hatchery Management, 2nd ed., American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, USA. pp: 91-186.

Davidson, J.; Good, C.; Welsh, C.; Brazil, B. & Summerfelt, S., 2009. Heavy metal and waste metabolite accumulation and their potential effect on rainbow trout performance in a replicated water reuse system operated at low or high flushing rates. Aquaculture Engineering 41: 136-145.

Davidson, J.; Good, C.; Welsh, C. & Summerfelt, S.T., 2011. Abnormal swimming behavior and increased deformities in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss cultured in low exchange water recirculating aquaculture systems. Aquaculture Engineering 45: 109-117.

Davidson, J.; Good, C.; Welsh, C. & Summerfelt, S.T. 2014. Comparing the effects of high vs. low nitrate on the health, performance, and welfare of juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss within water recirculating aquaculture systems. Aquaculture Engineering 59: 30-40.

Deviller, G.; Palluel, O.; Aliaume, C.; Asanthi, H.; Sanchez, W.; Franco Nava, M.A.; Blancheton, J.P. & Casellas, C. 2005. Impact assessment of various rearing systems on fish health using multibiomarker response and metals accumulation. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 61: 89-97.

Emerson, K.; Russo, R.C.; Lund, R.E. & Thurston, R.V. 1975. Aqueous ammonia equilibrium calculations: effect of pH and temperature. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 32: 2379-2383.

Francis-Floyd, R. 1990. Stress – its role in fish diseases. IFAS Circular 919. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA.

Good, C.; Davidson, J.; Welsh, C.; Brazil, B.; Snekvik, K. & Summerfelt, S. 2009. The impact of water exchange rate on the health and performance of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in water recirculation aquaculture systems. Aquaculture 294: 80-85.

Gupta, M.V. & Noble, F. 2001. Integrated chicken–fish farming. In: M. Halwart, J. Gonsalves, M. Prein, (Eds.), Integrated Agriculture– Aquaculture: A Primer, FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 407, FAO, Rome, Italy. pp: 49-53.

Hamlin, H.J. 2005. Nitrate toxicity in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri). Aquaculture 253: 688-693.

Holm, J.C.; Refstie, T. & Bo, S. 1990. The effect of fish density and feeding regimes on individual growth rate and mortality in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 89: 225-232.

Hopkins, J.S.; Hamilton, R.D.; Sandier, P.A.; Browdy, C.L. & Stokes, A.D. 1993. Effect of water exchange rate on production, water quality, effluent characteristics and nitrogen budgets of intensive shrimp ponds. Journal of World Aquaculture Society 24: 304-320.

Jha, P. 2007. Effect of different management regimes on the survival and growth of exotic ornamental fish, koi carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), under tropical conditions. Ph.D. Thesis, University of North Bengal, Siliguri, India.

Jha, P. 2010. Introduction of exogenous plankton as food allows for increased stocking density for intensive rearing of freshwater ornamental cyprinid, Epalzeorhynchus frenatus. Archivos de Zootecnia 59: 11-20.

Jha, P. 2017. Growth, survival rate, and number of marketable fish produced of gold fish, Carassius auratus (L.) in outdoor earthen ponds with endogenous culture of Daphnia sp. or Moina sp. and exogenous supply of mixed plankton. Volumul de Lucrări Ştiinţifice - Seria Zootehnie 67: 14-20.

Jha, P.; Sarkar, K. & Barat, S. 2004. Effect of different application rates of crowding and poultry excreta on water quality and growth of ornamental carp, Cyprinus carpio vr. koi, in concrete tanks. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 4: 17-22.

Jha, P. & Barat, S. 2005a. The effect of water exchange rate on water quality, growth and production of ornamental carp, Cyprinus carpio var. koi L., cultured in concrete tanks manured with poultry excreta. Archives of Polish Fisheries 13: 77-90.

Jha, P. & Barat, S. 2005b. The effect of stocking density on growth, survival rate, and number of marketable fish produced of koi carps, Cyprinus carpio var. koi, in concrete tanks. Journal of Applied Aquaculture 17: 89-102.

Jha, P. & Barat, S. 2005c. Management induced changes in food selection, growth and survival of koi carp, Cyprinus carpio var. koi L., in tropical ponds. Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - Bamidgeh 57: 115-124.

Jha, P.; Barat, S. & Nayak, C.R. 2006. A comparison of growth, survival rate and number of marketable koi carp produced under different management regimes in concrete tanks and earthen ponds. Aquaculture International 14: 615-626.

Jha, P.; Barat, S. & Nayak, C.R. 2008. Fish production, water quality and bacteriological parameters of koi carp ponds under live food and manure-based management regimes. Zoological Research 29: 165-173.

Jha, P.; Barat, S. & Sarkar, K. 2007. Comparative effect of live-food and manured treatments on water quality and production of ornamental carp, Cyprinus carpio var. koi L., during winter, summer, monsoon and post monsoon grow out experiments in concrete tanks. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 23: 87-92.

Kaiser, H.; Britz, P.; Endemann, F.; Haschick, R.; Jones, C.L.W.; Koranteng, B.; Kruger, D.P.; Lockyear, J.F.; Oellermann, L.K.; Olivier, A.P.; Rouhani, Q. & Hecht, T. 1997. Development of technology for ornamental fish aquaculture in South Africa. South African Journal of Science 93: 351-354.

Korwin-Kossakowski, M. & Ostaszewska, T. 2003. Histopathological changes in juvenile carp Cyprinus carpio L. continuously exposed to high nitrite levels from hatching. Archives of Polish Fisheries 11: 57-67.

Kroupova, H.; Machova, J. & Svobodova, Z. 2005. Nitrite influence on fish: a review. Veterinární medicína–Praha 50: 461-471.

Lewis Jr., W.M. & Morris, D.P. 1986. Toxicity of nitrite to fish: a review. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 115: 183-195.

Martins, C.I.M.; Pistrin, M.G.; Ende, S.S.W.; Eding, E.H. & Verreth, J.A.J. 2009a. The accumulation of substances in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) affects embryonic and larval development in common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Aquaculture 291: 65-73.

Martins, C.I.M.; Ochola, D.; Ende, S.S.W.; Eding, E.H. & Verreth, J.A.J. 2009b. Is growth retardation present in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus cultured in low water exchange recirculating aquaculture systems? Aquaculture 298: 43-50.

Milstein, A.; Avnimelech, Y.; Zoran, M. & Joseph, D. 2001. Growth performance of hybrid bass and hybrid tilapia in conventional and active suspension intensive ponds. Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - Bamidgeh 53: 147-157.

Mosteller, F. & Youtz, C. 1961. Tables of the Freeman – Tukey transformations for the binomial and poisson distributions. Biometrika 48: 433-440.

Nkengayi, A.E. 2011. The effects of water exchange and water quality on growth and survival of Clarias gariepinus (fingerlings) along the Mount Cameroon Region. Student Papers, Lund University Libraries, Lund, Sweden (https://lup.lub.lu.se/student-papers /search/ publication/8164305).

Parma de Croux, M.J. & Loteste, A. 2004. Lethal effects of elevated pH and ammonia on juveniles of neotropical fish Colosoma macropomum (Pisces, Caracidae). Journal of Environmental Biology 25: 7-10.

Perrone, S.J. & Meade, T.L. 1977. Protective effect of chloride on nitrite toxicity to Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 34: 486-492.

Ricker, W.E. 1975. Computation and interpretation of biological statistics of fish populations. Bulletin of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 191: 1-382.

Ronald, N.; Gladys, B. & Gasper, E. 2014. The effects of stocking density on the growth and survival of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry at Son fish farm, Uganda. Journal of Aquaculture Research and Development 5: 222.

Shofiquzzoha, A.F.M.; Halim, M.A. & Islam, M.S. 2017. Study of the present status and the constraints of commercially important small fish species culture at farm levels in Jessore region. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies 5: 148-152.

Singh, R.; Toor, H.S. & Sehgal, H.S. 1991. Toxic effects of some pond manures on development of egg and larval survival of common carp. Journal of Aquaculture in the Tropics 6: 63-68.

Sinha, A.K.; Liew, H.J.; Diricx, M.; Blust, R. & De Boeck, G. 2012. The interactive effects of ammonia exposure: nutritional status and exercise on metabolic and physiological responses in goldfish (Carassius auratus L.). Aquatic Toxicology 109: 33-46.

Szkudlarek, M. & Zakes, Z. 2002. The effect of stock density on the effectiveness of rearing pikepearch Sander lucioperca (L.) summer fry. Archives of Polish Fisheries 10: 115-119.

Van Bussel, C.G.J.; Schroeder, J.P.; Wuertz, S. & Schulz, C. 2012. The chronic effect of nitrate on production performance and health status of juvenile turbot (Psetta maxima). Aquaculture 326-329: 163-167.

Zar, J.H. 1999. Biostatistical Analysis. 4th ed. Prentice Hall International Inc., New Jersey, USA.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.