Fish as a marvelous creature in myths and manuscripts: An overview

Zohreh MORADI

Abstract

Myths, legends and marvelous creatures constitute an integral part of cultural, his-torical and literary heritage of all nations. Myths and legends are the subjects of studies in various fields such as literature, psychology, linguistics, folklore, etc. yet they have not been discussed in detail in the field of ichthyology. This paper is an attempt to review available information on what is considered as fish in myths and manuscripts including a historical text, Qazwini’s book (published in 1263 A.D.), those which are available in the museums around the world and those obtained during the fieldwork carried out in 2015 in some regions of Hor-muzgan Province, Iran. It seems that aquatic creatures, especially fishes, have been at the cen-ter of human thought for thousands of years, considering them as a blessed or hated creatures having a variety of forms with different faces resembling a human, snake, owl, cat or other animals, which are oriented with human beliefs, cultures and traditions.

 

 

Keywords

Marvelous, Myth, Human Beliefs, Blessed Creatures, Ichthyology, Iran.

Full Text:

PDF

References

Agorreta A.; San Mauro D.; Schliewen, U. & Rüber L. 2013. Molecular phylogenetics of Gobioidei and phylogenetic placement of European go-bies. Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution 69(3): 619–633.

Al-Hadi, Y. 2000. Investigating the land of "bark-ing", Translator: Joya, J. Journal of Legacy Mirror, Mirror of Heritage 2-3: 16-18. In Farsi.

Amid, H. 2002. Amid Dictionary. Amirkabir Publi-cation, Tehran, Iran. In Farsi.

Barati, P. 2009. Book Wonders of Iran: narrative, fantasy wonderland shape and structure as well as a Wonders of a seventh-century text. Afkar Publication, Tehran, Iran, In Farsi.

Blair, S.S. 1995. A compendium of chronicles. Rashid al-Din’s illustrated history of the world. The Nasser D. Khalili Collection of Islamic Art (General Editor Julian Raby). Oxford Univer-sity Press, Oxford. 126 pp.

Bosworth, C.E. & Afshar, I. 2011. Ajaeb-al-makluqat-the marvels of created things the name of a genre of classical Islamic literature and in-part, “Ajaeb Al-Makluqat”. Ency-clopædia Iranica, I/7, pp. 696-699; http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/ajaeb-al-makluqat.

Burton, L. 1987. Speculative nature and its secrets, translated by Mohammad Ghazi, Gothenburg Publication, Tehran, Iran. In Farsi.

Coad, B.W. 2017. Freshwater Fishes of Iran. www.briancoad.com.

Coad, B.W. & Al-Hassan, L.A.J. 1989. Freshwater shark attacks at Basrah, Iraq. Zoology in the Middle East 3: 49-53.

Coad, B.W.; Atz, J.W. & Keivany, Y. 2000. Fish im-agery in art 82: Jonah and the fish. Environ-mental Biology of Fishes 57(1): 9. Coad, W.B. 2015. Review of the freshwater sharks of Iran (family Carcharhinidae). International Journal of Aquatic Biology 3(4): 218-224.

Eschmeyer, W.N. & Fong, J.D. 2011. Pisces. Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher level classi-fication and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148: 26-38.

Esmaeili, H.R.; Mehraban, H.; Abbasi, K.; Keivany, Y. & Coad, B. 2017. Review and updated checklist of freshwater fishes of Iran: Taxon-omy, distribution and conservation status. Ira-nian Journal of Ichthyology 4(Suppl. 1): 1-114.

Froese, R. & Pauly, D. (eds.). 2017. "Trachinotus baillonii" in FishBase. www.fishbase.org.

Günther, A. 1874. A contribution to the fauna of the River Tigris. The Annals and Magazine of Nat-ural History 4(14): 36-38.

Hinnells, J. 2009. Persian Mythology. Translated by Jaleh Amoozgar and Ahmad Tafzili, Heshme Press, Tehran, Iran. In Farsi.

Hussain, N.A.; Rasen, A.K.; Al-Kafiji, B.Y & Coad, B.W. 2012. Bull shark occurrence Carcharhi-nus leucas (Valenciennes, 1839) at the inland waters of southern Iraq. The 1st Scientific Ag-ricultural Conference, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry - University of Duhok, April 10-12th 2012, Duhok - Kurdistan Region - Iraq, p. 25 (abstract).

Hussain, N.A.; Younis, K.H. & Yousif, U.H. 1997. The composition of small fish assemblages in the River Shatt Al-Arab near Basrah (Iraq). Acta Hydrobiologica 39(1/2): 29-37.

Keivany, Y. 2008. A summary of phylogenetic fish systematics. Isfahan University of Technology Press. 220p.

Keivany, Y.; Nasri, M.; Abbasi, K. & Abdoli, A. 2016. Atlas of inland water fishes of Iran. Iran Department of Environment Press. 218 p.

Kennedy, W.P. 1937. Some additions to the fauna of Iraq. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 39: 745-749.

Meredith-Owens, G.M. 1961. A New Illustrated Manuscript of the 'Ajā'ib Al-Makhlūqāt, The British Museum Quarterly 23(3): 8.

Minovi, M. 1948. Whale or the whale fish?, Yaghma Magazine 10: 452-456. In Farsi.

Moeen, M. 1971. The Moeen Encyclopedia, com-pleted by Jafar Shahidi, Amirkabir Publica-tion, Tehran, Iran. In Farsi.

Moradi, Z. 2008. The Collaboration and contrast of science and art in miniatures of the book of marvels of Qazwini, M.A. Thesis, Handicrafts research in traditional art, Faculty of Art, Al-zahra University, Tehran, Iran. In Farsi.

Moradi. Z. 2015. Fish Imagery in Iranian Artwork. Iranian Journal of Ichthyology 2(4): 244-261.

Nelson, J.S.; Grande, T.C. & Wilson, M.V.H. 2016. Fishes of the World. Wiley Publication. 752 pp.

Nasr, S.H. 1971. Science and Civilization in Islam, Translation; Ahmad Aram, Andisheh Publica-tion, Tehran, Iran. In Farsi.

Noorbakhsh, H. 1991. The Persian Gulf Aquatics (Research on fisheries, sea and aquatic Per-sian Gulf), Amirkabir Publication, Tehran, Iran. In Farsi.

Qazvini, Z.M.M.Y. 1263. ‘Ajā’ib al-makhlūqāt wa-gharā’ib al-mawjūdāt (Marvels of Things Cre-ated and Miraculous Aspects of Things Exist-ing), correction and introduction Nasrallah, Sabuhy, Tehran, Iran. In Farsi.

Raeini, E. 1971. Navigation. Immortal, Tehran, Iran. In Farsi. Rainboth, W.J. 1996. Fishes of the Cambodian Me-kong. FAO species identification field guide for fishery purposes. FAO, Rome, 265 p.

Rice, D.T. 1976. The illustrations to the ‘World His-tory’ of Rashid al-Din (Edited by B. Gray), Ed-inburgh University Press, Edinburgh. 192 pp.

Saadi Shirazi, S.M. 2011. Gardens. Sunlight, Iran. In Farsi.

Safai, M. & Esmaeili, H.R. 2009. Sea snake of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. Marine Research 1(1): 37-49.

Shahbazi, M.R; Avarand, S. & Jamali, M. 2014. An Anthropological study of Melmedas in Iran and Siren in Greece, Kamla-Raj, Anthropolo-gist 18(3): 981-989.

Tusi, M.M.A. 1966. Aǰāeb al-maḵlūqāt wa ḡarāeb al-mawǰūdāt, correction and introduction Manouchehr Sotoudeh, Tehran, Iran. In Farsi.

Taylor, W.R. 1986. Ariidae. pp. 153-159. In J. Daget, J.P. Gosse & D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (Eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISBN, Brussels; MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris.

Zivotofsky, A.Z. & Amar, Z. 2006. Identifying the ancient shibuta fish. Environmental Biology of Fishes 75(3): 361-363.

Zorzi, G.D. 1995. The biology of freshwater elasmo-branchs: an historical perspective. Journal of Aquaculture & Aquatic Sciences 7: 10-31.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.